The Call to Write

Field Guide: The Stray Shopping Carts of Eastern North America: A Guide to Field Identification 361 Ethics ofWriting: Reviewing as a Partisan Activity 365 Further Explorations 365 Rhetorical Analysis 365 Genre Awareness 365 Writing ...

Author: John Trimbur

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781285630823

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 688

View: 819


The sixth edition of THE CALL TO WRITE continues and expands its creative approach to college composition. Organized by genres, including memoirs, letters, profiles, reports, commentaries, proposals, and reviews, and including new chapters on multigenre writing and on writing essays, this innovative rhetoric gives students the practice they need to write in college and in the public sphere. Timely, provocative readings promote social engagement, encouraging students to become involved, through public writing, in their community and in the greater world around them. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Writing for Performance

In her opening to the published version of 365 Days/365 Plays plays, Parks says: I got this notion to write a play a day for a whole year... 'Yeah baby, that'd be cool,' Paul said. And so I started writing. It was November 13, 2002.

Author: Anne Harris

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789463005944

Category: Education

Page: 172

View: 711


"The Teaching Writing series publishes user-friendly writing guides penned by authors with publishing records in their subject matter. Harris and Holman Jones offer readers a practical and concise guide to writing a variety of dynamic texts for performance ranging from playscripts to ensemble and multimedia/hybrid works. Writing for Performance is structured around the ‘tools’ of performance writing—words, bodies, spaces, and things. These tools serve as pivots for understanding how writing for performance must be conducted in relation to other people, places, objects, histories, and practices. This book can be used as a primary text in undergraduate and graduate classes in playwriting, theatre, performance studies, and creative writing. It can also be read by ethnographic, arts-based, collaborative and community performance makers who wish to learn the how-to of writing for performance. Teachers and facilitators can use each chapter to take their students through the conceptualizing, writing, and performing/creating process, supported by exemplars and writing exercises and/or prompts so readers can try the form themselves. “What a welcome, insightful and much-needed book. Harris and Holman Jones bring us to an integrated notion of writing that is embodied, felt, breathed and flung from stage to page and back again. Writing for Performance will become a crucial text for the creation of the performance and theater that the 21st Century will need.” – Tim Miller, artist and author of Body Blows: Six Performances and 1001 Beds: Performances, Essays and Travels “No prescriptions here. In the hands of this creative duo we find a deep and abiding respect for the many creative processes that might fuel writing and performance that matters. From the deep wells of their own experiences, Harris and Holman Jones offer exercises that are not meant to mold the would-be writer, but spur them on to recognize their latent writing/performative selves.” – Kathleen Gallagher, Distinguished Professor of Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning, University of Toronto Anne Harris, PhD, is a senior lecturer at Monash University (Melbourne), and researches in the areas of arts, creativity, performance, and diversity. Stacy Holman Jones, PhD, is Professor in the Centre for Theatre and Performance at Monash University (Melbourne) specializing in performance studies, gender and critical theory and critical qualitative methods."

The Imperative to Write

writing, 19–20, 23, 34, 44, 45, 48–50, 71, 101,365n6; “A Fratricide,” 97, 365ng, 379n31; homoeroticism, 371n4, 37.4n24; “A Hunger Artist,” 4, 5, 6, 25, 26, 37–39, 45, 88, 104, 111, 122, 144–60, 284,348, 357, 358, 365n.9, 372ng, ...

Author: Jeff Fort

Publisher: Fordham Univ Press

ISBN: 9780823254705

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 440

View: 678


Is writing haunted by a categorical imperative? Does the Kantian sublime continue to shape the writer’s vocation, even for twentieth-century authors? What precise shape, form, or figure does this residue of sublimity take in the fictions that follow from it—and that leave it in ruins? This book explores these questions through readings of three authors who bear witness to an ambiguous exigency: writing as a demanding and exclusive task, at odds with life, but also a mere compulsion, a drive without end or reason, even a kind of torture. If Kafka, Blanchot, and Beckett mimic a sublime vocation in their extreme devotion to writing, they do so in full awareness that the trajectory it dictates leads not to metaphysical redemption but rather downward, into the uncanny element of fiction. As this book argues, the sublime has always been a deeply melancholy affair, even in its classical Kantian form, but it is in the attenuated speech of narrative voices progressively stripped of their resources and rewards that the true nature of this melancholy is revealed.

Concise Guide to Legal Research and Writing

Deborah E. Bouchoux. 14. Strategies for Effective Writing 365 ... Do not write the court argued . ... Thus, it is as incorrect to write “The brief is comprised of four sections” as it is to write “The brief is included of four sections.

Author: Deborah E. Bouchoux

Publisher: Wolters Kluwer

ISBN: 9781543815139

Category: Law

Page: 528

View: 342


Featuring Deborah E. Bouchoux’s highly regarded assignments, examples, and building-block approach, Concise Guide to Legal Research and Writing, Fourth Edition continues to provide timely coverage of the essential research and writing skills used by today’s paralegals. Designed specifically for paralegal students, this is the ideal text for shorter legal research and writing courses. New to the Fourth Edition: New “Sidebar” feature in all research chapters provides quick tips showing how the material in that chapter applies to computer-assisted legal research systems, such as Lexis, Westlaw, and Bloomberg Law. Discussion of GovInfo, which provides free public access to official and authenticated publications from all three branches of the federal government. Coverage of new tools used for cite-checking, including EVA and Bestlaw. Discussion of Westlaw Edge, Westlaw’s new research platform. Extensive new coverage of the increasing use of artificial intelligence in legal research and writing. Discussion of new sources that provide free public access to the law, including Harvard’s Caselaw Access Project, CourtListener, and RECAP Project. New sections on preparing email letters and email memoranda, including assignments. All new Research Questions and Internet Legal Research Assignments have been included for each chapter. Professors and students will benefit from: Concise, well-organized text, divided into six main sections: Section I discusses primary authorities Section II covers secondary sources Section III focuses on computer-assisted legal research using Lexis Advance, Westlaw, and the Internet Section IV covers citation form and how to ensure that these sources are still “good law” Section V provides an overview of the legal research process Section VI covers legal writing Pedagogy designed to enhance the accessibility of the material, including helpful charts and diagrams that synthesize complex topics, updated Practice Tips offering realistic and helpful suggestions for workplace success, and Ethics Alerts in every chapter. Targeted and ample exercises help students learn how to use a wide range of research sources. Tips on how to effectively use electronic resources are included throughout the text. Conscientious revision ensures that the book has the most up-to-date material, presented in a readable and accessible format.

Graduated School Arithmetic

365 If I knew only addition and subtraction , I should have to 365 write 365 down 5 times , and add the numbers together . The 365 answer , 1825 , would tell me how many . But if I knew the 365 multiplication table , I should write 365 ...

Author: Benjamin Templar


ISBN: BL:A0025223322

Category: Arithmetic

Page: 116

View: 846


Step Write Up

Steven King says he writes 365 days a year. Our own goal is to maintain that same level of commitment. We've realized that ideas and words come to us so much easier when we stay in the habit of writing every day.

Author: May McGoldrick

Publisher: MM Books


Category: Self-Help

Page: 160

View: 350


Step Write Up provides hands-on exercises for parents, teachers and for any workshop leader endeavoring to bring 21st century collaboration and writing skills into the classroom or homeschool environment. To accomplish this, the authors have assembled lessons that can be modified for your own specific personalities, uses, and grade levels. Some are icebreakers that are aimed at promoting communication and collaborative teamwork. Some are lessons that provide for individual creativity and then lead into opportunities for group sharing and critiquing. And the authors go even further, showing how the products of these creative efforts can even carry us into areas of initiative and entrepreneurialism. “Learning and innovation skills increasingly are being recognized as those that separate students who are prepared for a more and more complex life and work environments in the 21st century, and those who are not. A focus on creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration is essential to prepare students for the future.” —Partnership for 21st Century Skills CONTENTS ICEBREAKERS & EXERCISES COMMUNICATION & EXERCISES CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION COLLABORATION COLLABORATION EXERCISES CREATIVITY GUIDED OR FREE WRITING PROMPTS CREATIVITY - POETRY Using Imagery Using Metaphors Poetry - Writing Closed Couplets Poetry - Writing Open Couplets Poetry - Writing Ghazals CREATIVITY - FICTION Fiction - Senses and Imagination Fiction - Senses Fiction - Settings Fiction - Characters Fiction - Character Development Fiction - Plot Fiction - Plot: Three-Act Structure Fiction - Plot: Hero’s Journey Fiction - Character & Plot Fiction - Point of View Critiquing CREATIVE NONFICTION Creative Nonfiction - Writing Narrative Publishing Student Work ARTICLES FOR CREATIVE WRITERS Writing a Nonfiction Book Proposal Assessing Our Needs as Writers Writing a Synopsis Inventing and Reinventing Ourselves as Writers Ah, the Writer’s Life! Writing Suspense vs. Historical Stories The A-Z of Writing RESOURCES & AUTHOR’S NOTES Nikoo and James McGoldrick (Ph.D.) are popular speakers and conduct various interactive workshops stemming from their successful book Step Write Up and collaborating on fifty books over two decades with traditional publishers. Nikoo was author-in-residence in Northwest Connecticut for a decade, conducting creative writing workshops and making many school visits. Jim has years of experience teaching creative writing and English literature in the high school and college classroom. The two of them continue to develop a variety of programs for all ages on the craft and business of writing.

How to Write Comic Strips

It's what makes my comic, my comic. Do I ever delve into something different? Sure, from time to time I may do a generic gag, when you are writing 365 gags a year at times you should. But even then, I try to put my own Working Daze spin ...

Author: HowExpert

Publisher: HowExpert

ISBN: 9781647587468

Category: Humor

Page: 94

View: 872


“How to Write Comic Strips” is a step-by-step guide to help inspiring comic strip writers create their own comic. This guide leads the reader through the wondrous world of comic writing. The concept of humor is different for different people. The author shows the reader methods and tips to better understand and deal with these differences. Highlights of this guide include: 1) The many formats to choose from when writing a comic: • Single Panel • Multi-Panel 2) How find your concept: • Write what you know 3) How to develop and build great characters: • Bios, Backstory and More 4) Ways to write funny yet tight gags: • How many passes to make • Refining your words 5) Methods and tips to use to break out of writer’s block: • Fun exercises and routines to do 6) How to find and communicate with your artist: • Learn how to become a team 7) Market places for your comic: • How to find a home for your creation 8) New ways to sell and make money from comics: • Expanding and new markets so you can make money 9) Helpful tips: • Tricks learned after decades in the trade About the Expert Writes his own syndicated comic Working Daze by Universal Press. Art by Scott Roberts. Each day the comic is viewed by around 250K people. Also writes Maria’s day for Universal. Wrote gags for Tonight Show, Joan Rivers show, Chevy Chase show and literally hundreds of comics and magazine. Has sold well over 10K gags. Simpsons and Fairly Odd Parents and Jimmy Neutron comics. Rugrats comic strip for a year. A seven book humorous, sf, mystery series for Daw books and Penguin Putnam featuring a futuristic PI Zachary Nixon Johnson and his holographic assistant HARV. The series will continue on a small press. Pro Se Productions. The series as The Nuclear Bombshell series has been quite successful as Graphic Audio, Audio Books. Currently writing two successful middle readers for KC Global Enterprises: Diary of a Super Girl (which remains in the kindle top 10 in class for the year) and the new Adventures of the Once and Future Queen. Writer of numerous video games and apps. Space Run Galaxy being the most fun. Beat the Boss and Tap Titians and Driving Trump being the biggest sellers. Apps and games have had millions of downloads and purchases. (You would think he’d be richer.) Looks like he has stuff coming in Mad in 2018ish. The only person ever to finish in the top three of DC comics Zuda contest four times without ever winning the contest. HowExpert publishes quick 'how to' guides on all topics from A to Z by everyday experts.

How to Write a Children s Picture Book and Get it Published 2nd Edition

With her inside knowledge of the picture book market she is perfectly placed to help you realise the dream of seeing your own book accepted for publication. Other titles Masterclasses in Creative Writing 365 Ways to Get.

Author: Andrea Shavick

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9781472137999

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 208

View: 507


This book provides comprehensive advice on what to write about for children, how to write it, and how to present the work professionally for publication. It includes an easy-to-use picture book layout plan and tried and tested examples of title sheets and covering letters. It also includes everything a writer needs to know about the international picture book market and how to sell to agents and publishers. This new edition contains advice on enhancing your text for the ebook market.

Write Your Book in Microsoft Word 2019

If fact, this book is written in Microsoft Word 2019. Microsoft Word 365 is a web-based application of the current version of Word that is accessed through the internet. While this tutorial covers also topics on Word 365 when the book ...

Author: Dimitar Popmintchev



Category: Computers

Page: 104

View: 453


Create, edit and publish your book with less efforts using Microsoft Word 2019. This tutorial will guide you through the process of a book formatting till it is ready for publishing. Important topics are visualized in pictures. The book does not cover topics for working and insertion of equations, and references – this is covered in “Engineering and Scientific Manuscripts in Microsoft Word 2019”. This edition does not cover the art of writing or the appropriate style for presenting your creativity to a specific audience. Microsoft Word 365 is a web-based application of the current version of Word that is accessed through internet connection. While this tutorial covers also topics on Word 365 at this moment, Word 365 is being updated frequently and some features may differ at a later time. The tutorial is also available for previous versions of Word: Word 2016, Word 2013, Word 2010, Word 2007. Length: 104 pages 37 color pictures with guide lines Last Update: June 2019

Customizing Dynamics 365

continue to write JavaScript library after library, it becomes more and more complex and can easily end up as spaghetti code in no time. To avoid this, you must have a great deal of programming skills. Even though there are other ...

Author: Sanjaya Yapa

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 9781484243794

Category: Computers

Page: 314

View: 416


Gain an understanding of basic and advanced customizations in Dynamics 365 and learn how they can be effectively used to implement simple business requirements. This is a practical book for developers that explains the use of various Dynamics 365 features as well as use of advanced concepts such as Azure integration and custom development. Customizing Dynamics 365 starts by explaining the business requirements of the example application, which will explain the platform features, and discussing why Dynamics 365 is the ideal platform for the solution. Next, you will set up your development environment and use the different customizations of the platform to implement the basic business requirements of the example application. Further, you will automate the business process and create advanced customizations with plugins and custom workflow activities. Towards the end you will learn more about Azure integration, reports and dashboards, portal development, and data migration techniques, which will help you select the best option for a particular scenario. After reading this book you will be able to develop solutions with Dynamic 365 by understanding the various features and customizations of the platform. What You Will Learn Choose the right customizations and configurations to meet end-user requirements Use Azure features with Dynamics 365 to implement complex business scenarios Understand the importance of using source control for Dynamics 365 customizations Discover new trends with Dynamics 365 mobility Who This Book Is For Dynamics 365 developers, consultants, and architects.

Fundamentals of Probability A First Course

Applying this separately to 365! and (365 — n)!, we have 1_ p" I 365! ... an approximation to p” is pn % 1 — e_(g)/365 if n is moderately large but small compared to 365, so we can write 365 in place of 365 _ n in ('2')/(365 _ 11).

Author: Anirban DasGupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441957801

Category: Mathematics

Page: 450

View: 733


Probability theory is one branch of mathematics that is simultaneously deep and immediately applicable in diverse areas of human endeavor. It is as fundamental as calculus. Calculus explains the external world, and probability theory helps predict a lot of it. In addition, problems in probability theory have an innate appeal, and the answers are often structured and strikingly beautiful. A solid background in probability theory and probability models will become increasingly more useful in the twenty-?rst century, as dif?cult new problems emerge, that will require more sophisticated models and analysis. Thisisa text onthe fundamentalsof thetheoryofprobabilityat anundergraduate or ?rst-year graduate level for students in science, engineering,and economics. The only mathematical background required is knowledge of univariate and multiva- ate calculus and basic linear algebra. The book covers all of the standard topics in basic probability, such as combinatorial probability, discrete and continuous distributions, moment generating functions, fundamental probability inequalities, the central limit theorem, and joint and conditional distributions of discrete and continuous random variables. But it also has some unique features and a forwa- looking feel.

Best Practices in Writing Instruction Second Edition

... 352 snapshots of writing scenarios, 356—357 text-based writing and, 362—368 Fourth grade narrative complexity in, ... 134—135 features of, 55—56 writing to learn in, 182—185 Holistic grading of writing, 365, 372 HoT S—C Team, ...

Author: Steve Graham

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9781462510375

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 444

View: 697


An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learners and struggling writers. Helpful case examples are featured throughout. New to This Edition *Revised and expanded to address the CCSS. *Incorporates the latest research and instructional procedures. *Chapters on teaching argumentative and informative writing. *Chapters on college and career readiness, writing to learn, writing about texts, and response to intervention. See also the editors' Handbook of Writing Research, Second Edition, which provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge writing research that informs good practice.

How to Write It Third Edition

A Complete Guide to Everything You'll Ever Write Sandra E. Lamb ... 362-365 follow-up after direct mail. sample of. ... 239 Downsilinp, See Loss ofiols Downsiling. sample termination letter due to, I94 - l95 Drafts. writing.

Author: Sandra E. Lamb

Publisher: Ten Speed Press

ISBN: 9781607740483

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 432

View: 139


Write personal and professional communications with clarity, confidence, and style. How to Write It is the essential resource for eloquent personal and professional self-expression. Award-winning journalist Sandra E. Lamb transforms even reluctant scribblers into articulate wordsmiths by providing compelling examples of nearly every type and form of written communication. Completely updated and expanded, the new third edition offers hundreds of handy word, phrase, and sentence lists, precisely crafted sample paragraphs, and professionally designed document layouts. How to Write It is a must-own for students, teachers, authors, journalists, bloggers, managers, and anyone who doesn’t have time to wade through a massive style guide but needs a friendly desk reference.

The Best Writing on Mathematics 2015

birthday from me is 364/365 × 364/365 × 364/365 × 364/365 . . . × 364/365, with 364/365 multiplied together n – 1 times. If n is 23, this is 0.94. Because that's the probability that none of them share my birthday, the probability that ...

Author: Mircea Pitici

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691169651

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

View: 979


This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, The Best Writing on Mathematics 2015 makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else—and you don’t need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today’s hottest mathematical debates. Here David Hand explains why we should actually expect unlikely coincidences to happen; Arthur Benjamin and Ethan Brown unveil techniques for improvising custom-made magic number squares; Dana Mackenzie describes how mathematicians are making essential contributions to the development of synthetic biology; Steven Strogatz tells us why it’s worth writing about math for people who are alienated from it; Lisa Rougetet traces the earliest written descriptions of Nim, a popular game of mathematical strategy; Scott Aaronson looks at the unexpected implications of testing numbers for randomness; and much, much more. In addition to presenting the year’s most memorable writings on mathematics, this must-have anthology includes a bibliography of other notable writings and an introduction by the editor, Mircea Pitici. This book belongs on the shelf of anyone interested in where math has taken us—and where it is headed.

Simplified vs Traditional The Two Forms of Written Chinese

364В19 xun } | } Also 371В25 уin 364В20 xun *# } 364В2 xUn } | } 364ВЗ ХUn На Нё 365 yа 364В4 xUn ді | } 365А1 * 364В5 xun f fi) | fi) ya * [ # ** 364A4 xun f + i + "f rян 364В6 xun f 38 38к 365А2 ya r де ак 364В7 xun 6)R | 6); Also ...

Author: Feiya Chen


ISBN: 9781387183685



View: 866


This book documents in detail the complex relationship between Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese: the two forms of 7000 characters matched up, complex cases annotated with the word contexts. An essential reference for reading and writing in Chinese, for both learners and proficient users.

Writing Ten Core Concepts

See also Academic argument audience and, 341, 364, 365 background in, 364 benefits in, statement of, 364 characteristics of effective, 332–339 claims or assertions in, 367 classical arrangement, 364 complexity of, 367–368, ...

Author: Robert P. Yagelski

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9780357505779

Category: Education

Page: 896

View: 251


Master the fundamentals critical to becoming an effective writer with Yagelski's WRITING: TEN CORE CONCEPTS, 3E. Carefully designed guides, thoroughly integrated with the core concepts, set this book apart as you study key rhetorical moves within analytical, persuasive and narrative writing. Applied assignments challenge you to complete causal analysis, academic arguments and literacy narratives. This edition presents writing as an interaction between writer and reader, teaching you how to use writing skills to participate in important conversations shaping today's lives. This edition features 26 new readings and 11 new sample student essays as well as new chapters on literacy narratives, summary-response essays, annotated bibliographies and presentations. Updates guide you in working with digital resources, expand your critical reading strategies and highlight the latest APA and MLA guidelines. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Instant Answer Guide to Business Writing

... see writing as a team Technical description, model of, 413 Technical writers' responsibilities, 364–65 accuracy and clarity of content, 365 choice of content, 364 safety of readers, 365 Technical writing style, 365–69 acronyms in, ...

Author: Deborah Dumaine

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 9780595267309

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 512

View: 842


Fast, accurate answers to all your business writing questions will be at your fingertips when you put this handy, carry-it-anywhere reference to work for you. Packed with practical guidance and real-world examples, it helps you ? write better business documents in half the time ? design winning proposals ? generate e-mail that commands attention ? create presentations and reports that achieve results ? use visuals to maximum effect ? choose from many sample documents for inspiration ? write with greater clarity and impact ? avoid redundancy, stiff phrasing, and "bureaucratic" writing ? make every word count ? handle complex technical topics with ease ? learn the fine art of sending bad news ? organize formal documents for impact ? choose the best formatting techniques ? avoid embarrassing mistakes in grammar and usage.

Writing and the Modern Stage

quality of presence for the alternative site of writing, these plays forcefully inscribe a structure of alterity within ... such as The Red Letter Plays (1999–2000), 365 Days/365 Plays (2006–2007), and Father Comes Home From the Wars ...

Author: Julia Jarcho

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107132351

Category: Drama

Page: 306

View: 602


This book presents a new argument that reimagines modern theater's critical power and places innovative writing at the heart of the experimental stage.

The Dawn of Astronomy

The true year and the newly - established year of 365 days , then , behaved to each other as shown in the ... 365-25 did not really represent the true length of the solar year ; instead of 365-25 we must write 365-242392 — that is to ...

Author: Sir Norman Lockyer


ISBN: HARVARD:32044020848503

Category: Astronomy, Egyptian

Page: 432

View: 922


Rating EFL Written Performance

think-aloud 7, 12, 25, 27, 77, 79, 85-86, 89, 96, 99-101, 104-108, 114-116, 118, 128-130, 136-137, 140-142, 153, 156, 172, 252, 351, 354, 359, 365-366,374, 394, 407 think-aloud procedure 25, 27, 107, 115, 118, 354, 359, 366, ...

Author: Katalin Bukta

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9788376560793

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 424

View: 394


This book aims to provide an insight into rating processes, while assessing English language learners’ written performance with think aloud protocol analysis. 37 teacher trainees assessed the same ten scripts. They received training in written performance assessment and rated the benchmarked scripts. They audio-recorded their thinking processes and produced protocols, which serve as a basis to follow raters’ thinking during rating.