The Tamil Separatist War in Sri Lanka

By early 1994, the war had settled into a stalemate again. In the North, the Tigers
still held on to the Wanni and much of the Jaffna Peninsula with the Security
Forces unable to dominate the region. The rise of the Sea Tigers was making the

Author: Channa Wickremesekera

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317293866

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 404


The complex and long-drawn war between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) ended with the defeat of the Tigers in 2009. This book provides a military history of the conflict in tracing its evolution from a battle between a ragtag guerrilla force and a mainly ceremonial army to one between an organized guerrilla force with semi-conventional capability and a state military apparatus that had morphed into a large and potent force with modern armour, aircraft and naval vessels. Using a wide range of sources this book offers an incisive analysis of the progress and conclusion of one of the longest and most destructive wars in modern South Asia. Comprehensive and accessible, the volume will be of great interest to scholars and researchers of modern South Asia, especially Sri Lanka, military history, politics, defence and strategic studies, as well as the general reader.

Collections Concerning the Church Or Congregation of Protestant Separatists Formed at Scrooby in North Nottinghamshire in the Time of King James I

By Joseph some of the Fields of Battle ; and an Appendix , continu a IRVING .
Thick 4to . ( pp . 636 ) , maps , plates , principal Acts of Attainder relative to the
Wars of the Rais hao . . and portraits , cloth , £4 . 1860 Lifts of the Noblernen ,
Knights ...

Author: Joseph Hunter



Category: Massachusetts

Page: 205

View: 552


Black Separatism and Social Reality

While the Black churches and civil rights organizations expect women to fulfill
traditional roles and tasks, the separatist movements have lifted Black women
onto pedestals to be admired, glorified, and propagandized at the same time that
they ...

Author: Raymond L. Hall

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483151595

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 476


Black Separatism and Social Reality: Rhetoric and Reason deals with the contemporary debate over black separatism in America. It brings together for the first time many of the perspectives, ideas, orientations, and ideologies that all directly or indirectly address the question of black separatism — pro and con — from the vantage point of their own realities. It raises fundamental issues that have recurred throughout the last century and continue unabated today, such as whether black Americans should seek their political destiny apart from white Americans, or whether economic growth within the black community can eventually lead to true ""black power."" This book is comprised of 31 chapters and begins with a historical overview and social reality of black separatism in America, how and why black separatist movements emerge and why separatism appeals to some individuals and not to others. The next section explores the similarities of white racist assumptions and black separatism as well as the arguments for and against separatism. The prospects of black separatism are analyzed, along with Pan-Africanism and black studies. A comprehensive review of the history of separatist thought and a bibliography concerning the relation of Afro-Americans with Africa are presented. The possibility of a violent confrontation between whites and blacks is also considered. Finally, the book ponders the question of whether there is a need for a distinct, ""black"" social science. This monograph will appeal to sociologists, social scientists, political scientists, politicians, blacks, and scholars of black studies.

Muslim Separatism and the Partition of India

238 ) The resolution reiterated the League ' s demand for Pakistan and lifted the
ban on League members in associating themselves with the War Committee .
The League neither accepted nor rejected the August offer . For whole hearted ...

Author: Debadutta Chakravarty

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 8126902388

Category: India

Page: 216

View: 562


The Rare Piece Of The Drama Partition, In 1947 Warranted The Scholars To Rebuild The History Of The Cunning Passages To Muslim Separatism In India And The Consequent Blood Bath Of The Nation. In This Book, Muslim Separatism And The Partition Of India, The Author Offers A Very Big Highway To Explore All The Roads And Sub-Roads To Trace Out The Genesis Of Communalism In India Under The Patronage Of The Colonial Government And Its Ultimate Culmination To The Creation Of An Ulster In This Sub-Continent On The Midnight Of August 14-15, 1947. The Author, Like Charles Lamb, Kept Himself Far Away From Any Personal Bias In Searching Out The Different Dynamics Behind The Artificial Partition By A Candid Analysis Of All The Facts And Documents Available.

Engaging Eurasia s Separatist States

The study concluded that the effect of lifting the blockades would not be
spectacular in the short term as long as the states remained institutionally weak
and plagued by endemic corruption : “ A political settlement per se would not
bring about ...

Author: Dov Lynch

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 1929223544

Category: Political Science

Page: 170

View: 655


In the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, secessionist forces carved four de facto states from parts of Moldova, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. Ten years on, those states are mired in uncertainty. Beset by internal problems, fearful of a return to the violence that spawned them, and isolated and unrecognized internationally, they survive behind cease-fire lines that have temporarily frozen but not resolved their conflicts with the metropolitan powers. In this, the first in-depth comparative analysis of these self-proclaimed republics, Dov Lynch examines the logic that maintains this uneasy existence and explores ways out of their volatile predicament. Drawing on extensive travel within Eurasia and remarkable access to leading figures in the secessionist struggles, Lynch spotlights the political, military, and economic dynamics--both internal and external--that drive the existence of South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Transnistria, and Nagorno-Karabakh. He also evaluates a range of options for resolving the status of the de facto states before violence returns, and proposes a coordinated approach, spearheaded by the European Union, that balances de facto and de jure independence and sovereignty. Slim but packed with information and insight, this volume also offers instructive lessons about the dynamics of intrastate and ethnic conflict and the merits of autonomy and power sharing in places as diverse as Kosovo, Northern Cyprus, and Chechnya.


With respect to Belarus , only the first stage of the monetary union has occurred at
the time of writing ( namely , the lifting of trade and customs restrictions between
the two countries ) . The second stage , the exchange of the two currencies on a ...

Author: Metta Spencer

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0847685853

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 821


This book offers a comparative view of nine historic separatist movements, some of which have achieved the break-up of an empire or a state, and others that to date have not. The authors analyze the long term effects of secession: after partition, ethnic strife typically continues for generations; minorities decline in status; and democracy and human rights are derogated.

Muslim Separatism

Even a superficial examination of separatist movements elsewhere in the world
suggests a number of common features ... to lift the living standards of the ethnic
minorities fail to recognize that the ethnic protagonists perceive their conflict not
in ...

Author: Kadir Che Man (W.)

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: UOM:39015015162590

Category: Malays (Asian people)

Page: 240

View: 848


This important comparative study views the separatist movements in the Philippines and Thailand as both political phenomena and springing from dissatisfied ethnic minorities. The author questions "Modernization school" and Marxist belief that ethnicity is a transitory phenomenon, arguing that that concept of "national culture" may result in minority groups remaining outside the culture. Examining the form and development of these resistance struggles, this study investigates their structure, leadership, and ideology, and highlights the role of Islam in shaping and sustaining the movements.

The Politics of Eastern Cape Separatism 1820 1854

39 Substantial profits had been made on the sale and re - sale of such farms
since the war - a fact which even the ... the troops and rob the tax - payer in the
United Kingdom and give our governors a lift to provide for their sons à la Napier

Author: Cordeur Le

Publisher: Cape Town ; New York : Oxford University Press

ISBN: UOM:39015001004996

Category: British

Page: 314

View: 314


Nationalists Soldiers and Separatists

When it was lifted in August , just as the RTC was starting in The Hague , there
was a lot to catch up on and a great urgency for each group in Ambon to
demonstrate to that distant audience that it represented Ambonese opinion or at
least that ...

Author: Richard Chauvel


ISBN: STANFORD:36105000339916

Category: Ambon (Indonesia : District)

Page: 432

View: 311


De geschiedenis van de uitroeping van de onafhankelijke Republiek der Zuid-Molukken.

Catalan Separatism

He did not recognize him by as much as a lift of an eyebrow . Throughout the
interrogation , however , Macia gazed calmly at Garibaldi while the latter ,
abashed , looked at the floor . When Macia was told that Garibaldi admitted
seeing him ...

Author: Club Separatista Català


ISBN: UOM:39015067344914

Category: Catalan problem

Page: 16

View: 164


John O Leary a Study in Irish Separatism

Galg aler til 1 da ra how he found thy star war ting and how mesecaga , hins
Ofenomen Riza , arrwed kat evening . ... w Cooney leave the concry without
without a how much I apat from everything have been treated lift Jan Quesday
week raid ...

Author: Marcus Bourke

Publisher: Tralee, Ire : Anvil Books

ISBN: UCAL:B5025927

Category: Ireland

Page: 251

View: 176


Tito Lifts the Curtain

She had fought with magnificent bravery during the war and her tiny population
had held off the combined attack of Bulgaria and Austria - Hungary for ...
passions had been dormant under Austria - Hungary , were now roused to
separatism .

Author: Hallam Tennyson


ISBN: UOM:39015009346860

Category: Yugoslavia

Page: 240

View: 205


The Oil Curse

Oil can even trigger separatist wars in which locals do not fire the first shot. in any
conflict, both sides can act strategically, ... since the oil industry would lift incomes
in the oil-producing region and hence discourage locals from taking up arms.

Author: Michael L. Ross

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400841929

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 779


Countries that are rich in petroleum have less democracy, less economic stability, and more frequent civil wars than countries without oil. What explains this oil curse? And can it be fixed? In this groundbreaking analysis, Michael L. Ross looks at how developing nations are shaped by their mineral wealth--and how they can turn oil from a curse into a blessing. Ross traces the oil curse to the upheaval of the 1970s, when oil prices soared and governments across the developing world seized control of their countries' oil industries. Before nationalization, the oil-rich countries looked much like the rest of the world; today, they are 50 percent more likely to be ruled by autocrats--and twice as likely to descend into civil war--than countries without oil. The Oil Curse shows why oil wealth typically creates less economic growth than it should; why it produces jobs for men but not women; and why it creates more problems in poor states than in rich ones. It also warns that the global thirst for petroleum is causing companies to drill in increasingly poor nations, which could further spread the oil curse. This landmark book explains why good geology often leads to bad governance, and how this can be changed.

The Secret American Dream The Creation of a New World Order with the Power to Abolish War Poverty and Disease

The sanctions could only be lifted when there was unanimity between the
Security Council's Permanent Members, but the ... Yugoslavia's leader since the
Second World War, there was a growth in separatist feeling in some of the
constituent ...

Author: Nicholas Hagger

Publisher: Duncan Baird Publishers

ISBN: 9781780282121

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 244


Until the present time there have been seven stages of United States expansionism - from the Federal unification of the original states to the 'New World Order' planned by US-led commercial elites before and after 1989. Extrapolating both from the author's distinctive reading of history and the evidence of President Obama's own speeches and actions, The Secret American Dream proposes that the US now faces a new, eighth, phase of expansion. In this, the traditional 'American Dream' of peace, social order and prosperity would be extended to all humankind. This ambitious plan - little known and understood outside President Obama's inner circle - would involve the creation of a benevolent World State initiated, but not dominated, by the United States. The Secret American Dream suggests that the first step in establishing the World State - a supranational authority with legal powers to abolish war and nuclear weapons - would be a visit by the US President to the UN General Assembly requesting a World Constitutional Convention. Under the President's proposals, the existing UN General Assembly would become an elected, 850-seat lower house, alongside a new World Senate and an executive called the World Commission. A senatorial World Openness Committee would control the world's commercial elites and harness their positive skills and energies. Founded on altruistic and philanthropic principles, the World State would bring global peace, disarmament and the opportunity of prosperity to every individual on Earth. The abolition of war and nuclear stockpiles would remove the threat of nuclear war and the possibility of ex-Soviet nuclear weapons falling into terrorist hands. It would also create a 'peace dividend' of nearly US$1.5 trillion per year, which could be spent on eliminating world poverty, disease and famine; on guaranteeing financial instability and a minimum income for all; and on solving energy and environmental problems. Initiatives by President Obama in a range of areas, such as his recent nuclear disarmament deal with Russia, show that he is already taking steps to implement this 'secret' American Dream.

Central Asia and the Caucasus

Lift Art 907 of the 1992 Freedom Support Act , which imposes sanctions on
Azerbaijan . ... These sanctions undermine the U . S . ' s role of an honest broker
in the Karabakh conflict and block numerous types of U . S . assistance to the ... In
the early 1990s , Moscow has supported militarily Abkhaz separatists against the
central government in Georgia and Karabakh Armenians against Azerbaijan .



ISBN: UOM:39015073518469

Category: Asia, Central


View: 358


The Christian Leader

... PILGRIMS A new kind of war memorial was unPuritan , Separatist , Pilgrim
veiled in Orange , Massachusetts , on MeIn ... and how they The Pilgrim Fathers
We lift up thankful hearts . had been driven to disillusionment and deIn
commenting ...



ISBN: WISC:89069644433



View: 665


Economy Culture and Civil War in Sri Lanka

1 Articulations of Economy and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka Deborah Winslow
and Michael D. Woost On July 24 , 2001 , a small but well armed ... tourism
resumed , the surcharges gradually were lifted , and travel to and from the
country was approaching normal within a year . ... economic path traveled by the
Sri Lankan government since 1983 , when the war with the Tamil separatists
began in earnest .

Author: Deborah Winslow

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253110262

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 605


"Will be of interest to those working on conflict and peace studies, economic development, cultural studies, and women in the modern world. A key new publication." -- Chandra R. de Silva, Old Dominion University "... offers a superb overview of how a civil war, driven by ethnicity, can engender a new culture and a new political economy... Highly recommended." -- Choice Economy, Culture, and Civil War in Sri Lanka provides a lucid and up-to-date interpretation of Sri Lankan society and its 20-year civil conflict. An interdisciplinary examination of the relationship between the economy, broadly defined, and the reproduction of violent conflict, this volume argues that the war is grounded not just in the goals and intentions of the opposing sides, but also in the everyday orientations, experiences, and material practices of all Sri Lankan people. The contributors explore changing political and policy contexts; the effect of long-term conflict on employment opportunities and life choices for rural and urban youth; life histories, memory, and narratives of violence; the "economics of enlisting" and individual decisions about involvement in the war; and nationalism and the moral debate triggered by women's employment in the international garment manufacturing industry. Contributors are Francesca Bremner, Michele Ruth Gamburd, Newton Gunasinghe, Siri T. Hettige, Caitrin Lynch, John M. Richardson, Jr., Amita Shastri, Deborah Winslow, and Michael D. Woost.

Lift Every Voice

But in Boston , where the most notable desegregation campaign took place , the
battle for equal school rights was ... For further information , see Dorothy Porter
Wesley , “ Integration Versus Separatism : William Cooper Nell ' s Role in the ...

Author: Philip Sheldon Foner


ISBN: UOM:39015039924272

Category: Social Science

Page: 925

View: 669


This comprehensive anthology will be the standard source for the study of African American public address for years to come. For Americans of the 19th century, as W. E. B. Du Bois observed, eloquent speeches were 'the shining lights of civilization' that both expressed and sought to improve the lives and communities from which they sprang. Through political speeches, sermons, lectures, oral testimonies, and ceremonial addresses, African Americans offered diverse responses to the issues and events of their times, including not only slavery and racial equality but also women's rights, education, religion, immigration, socialism, war, Indian policy, and labor organization, among others. The speeches in this collection are among the most powerful expressions of African American opinions on these issues and were delivered on occasions and before audiences where the speakers believed their words might be transformative. "Lift Every Voice" is a completely revised, updated, and expanded version of Philip Foner's 1972 classic Voice of Black America, which Library Journal hailed as "indispensable.""This well-edited and richly inclusive work," wrote Benjamin Quarles, "unveils the full sweep of Black expression as found in platform addresses" by "men and women who join eloquence with reason in articulating their grievances and their aspirations and in arousing their listeners with their ringing and prophetic challenges." This new collection includes over 60 additional texts and revised and expanded introductory essays that provide historical, biographical, and critical information for each speech. Containing more than 150 speeches, this anthology represents the most extensive and diverse collection of African American oratory of the 18th and 19th centuries ever published. "Lift Every Voice" makes readily accessible not only the classic orations of such well-known figures as Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and Booker T. Washington but also dozens of lesser-known but important speeches deserving greater recognition and study. Many of these speeches are previously unpublished, uncollected, or long out of print.

Fields of Fire

In 1998, Chinese President Jiang Zemin visited the region and called for a “
people's war” against “separatist elements. ... hallmark of Chinese Communist
rule in Xinjiang, and the general culture of oppression shows no signs of lifting.

Author: Stuart Notholt

Publisher: Troubador Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 9781906510473

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

View: 521


This atlas focuses on violent ethnic disputes that have been active since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Many of these have an earlier origin, and some have been resolved since 1989 -- at least for the present. A small number of conflicts in which ethnicity does not play a significant role, but which have relevance either to individual population groups or to neighboring disputes, are included for completeness. In each case, details of geographical extent, timeline, and ethnic composition of the relevant territory is included.