Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) refer to a range of potentially lifelong effects that result from prenatal ... Alcohol is a teratogen (i.e., an environmental toxin that causes birth defects); it can affect brain development at ...
Author: Ellen Braaten
Publisher: SAGE Publications
According to the CDC "about one in six, or about 15%, of children aged 3 through 17 years have one or more developmental disabilities," such as ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and learning disability. Intellectual disorders are characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills, impacting learning, reasoning, problem solving, and other cognitive processes. These disabilities originate before the age of 18 and continue across the life span. Developmental disorders are chronic disabilities that can be cognitive or physical or both. The disabilities appear before the age of 22 and are likely to progress across the lifespan. Some developmental disorders are largely physical issues, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy. Some individuals may have a disorder that includes a physical and intellectual disability; for example, Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome. Intellectual and developmental disorders are significant and growing issues that are studied across a number of disciplines. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Intellectual and Developmental Disorders is aimed at students interested in psychology, counseling, education, social work, psychiatry, health sciences, and more. This encyclopedia will provide an in-depth look at a wide range of disorders, alongside interventions, the latest research translated for an undergraduate audience, historical context, and assessment tools for higher-level students. We will take a truly interdisciplinary approach by also covering sociocultural viewpoints, policy implications, educational applications, ethical issues, and more.