The Compleat Victory

American Commissioners at Paris to the Committee on Foreign Affairs , December 18 , 1777 , in Willcox , Papers of Benjamin Franklin , Vol . 25 , 305–309 . 44. Arthur Lee to Samuel Adams , December 18 , 1777 , in Lee , Life of Arthur Lee ...

Author: Kevin J. Weddle

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195331400

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 863


In the late summer and fall of 1777, after two years of indecisive fighting on both sides, the outcome of the American War of Independence hung in the balance. Having successfully expelled the Americans from Canada in 1776, the British were determined to end the rebellion the following year and devised what they believed a war-winning strategy, sending General John Burgoyne south to rout the Americans and take Albany. When British forces captured Fort Ticonderoga with unexpected ease in July of 1777, it looked as if it was a matter of time before they would break the rebellion in the North. Less than three and a half months later, however, a combination of the Continental Army and Militia forces, commanded by Major General Horatio Gates and inspired by the heroics of Benedict Arnold, forced Burgoyne to surrender his entire army. The American victory stunned the world and changed the course of the war. Kevin J. Weddle offers the most authoritative history of the Battle of Saratoga to date, explaining with verve and clarity why events unfolded the way they did. In the end, British plans were undone by a combination of distance, geography, logistics, and an underestimation of American leadership and fighting ability. Taking Ticonderoga had misled Burgoyne and his army into thinking victory was assured. Saratoga, which began as a British foraging expedition, turned into a rout. The outcome forced the British to rethink their strategy, inflamed public opinion in England against the war, boosted Patriot morale, and, perhaps most critical of all, led directly to the Franco-American alliance. Weddle unravels the web of contingencies and the play of personalities that ultimately led to what one American general called "the Compleat Victory."

Julien David Leroy and the Making of Architectural History

Franklin to Jean-Baptiste Leroy, January 31, 1769 in William B. Willcox ed., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 16 (New Haven, 1972), 33. Jean-Baptiste Leroy to Franklin [1777] in Willcox, Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 25 (New ...

Author: Christopher Drew Armstrong

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135763961

Category: Architecture

Page: 300

View: 995


This book examines the career and publications of the French architect Julien-David Leroy (1724–1803) and his impact on architectural theory and pedagogy. Despite not leaving any built work, Leroy is a major international figure of eighteenth-century architectural theory and culture. Considering the place that Leroy occupied in various intellectual circles of the Enlightenment and Revolutionary period, this book examines the sources for his ideas about architectural history and theory and defines his impact on subsequent architectural thought. This book will be of key interest to graduate students and scholars of Enlightenment-era architectural history.

Corruption in America

“To Benjamin Franklin from the Comte de Sarsfield,” November 7, 1777, Founders Online, National Archives, /documents/Franklin/01-25-02-0093, source: The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 25, October 1, 1777, ...

Author: Zephyr Teachout

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674745087

Category: Law

Page: 384

View: 410


When Louis XVI gave Ben Franklin a diamond-encrusted snuffbox, the gift troubled Americans: it threatened to corrupt him by clouding his judgment. By contrast, in 2010 the Supreme Court gave corporations the right to spend unlimited money to influence elections. Zephyr Teachout shows that Citizens United was both bad law and bad history.

British Supporters of the American Revolution 1775 1783

47 Benjamin Franklin to David Hartley , October 14 , 1777 , in William B. Willcox , Douglas Arnold , Dorothy Bridgewater , et al . , eds , The papers of Benjamin Franklin ( New Haven , CT , 1986 ) , vol . 25 , 64-68 ; David Hartley to ...

Author: Sheldon Samuel Cohen

Publisher: Boydell Press

ISBN: 1843830116

Category: History

Page: 181

View: 180


America's Declaration of Independence, while endeavouring to justify a break with Great Britain, simultaneously proclaimed that the colonists had not been `wanting in attention to our British brethren', but that they had `been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity'. This overstatement has since been modified in comprehensive histories of the American Revolution. Gradually a more balanced portrait of British attitudes towards the conflict has emerged. In particular, studies of pro-American Britons have exemplified this fact by concentrating on only a small upper-class minority. BR> In contrast, this work focuses on five unrenowned men of Britain's `middling orders'. These individuals actively endeavoured to aid the American cause. Their efforts, often unlawful, brought them into contact with Benjamin Franklin, for whom they befriended rebel seamen confined in British gaols. Their stories - rendered here - open up new areas for study of the American War on this middling segment of Britain's social structure.

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Volume 25

Izard hated Franklin with unparalleled bitterness but humbly adores the Presidt. because he is in loco regis. ... the PAPER of FENNo referred to by TJ, printed an unsigned letter to Benjamin Franklin Bache, Benjamin Franklin's grandson ...

Author: Thomas Jefferson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691185309

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 827

View: 170


The dramatic escalation in the conflict between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton to determine the future course of the new American nation is the main theme of this volume. Under pressure from other Republicans, Jefferson decides to continue as Secretary of State instead of retiring to Monticello at the end of President Washington's first term. At the same time he begins to play a more active role as a Republican party leader, involving himself secretly in a major effort by House Republicans to have Hamilton dismissed from office by censuring his management of public finances. France's declaration of war on Great Britain and the Netherlands leads Jefferson into a serious conflict with Hamilton over how to protect American neutrality in the face of the widening European war. After persuading Washington to preserve the treaties of alliance and commerce with France, Jefferson must then confront the first in a series of French violations of American neutrality that will sorely test the relationship between the two republics. Testifying to the catholicity of Jefferson's interests, this volume also deals with his efforts to promote a voyage of western exploration by the noted French botanist Andr Michaux, his observation of the first manned balloon flight in America by the celebrated French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard, and his concern for expediting work on the new national capital.

Valley Forge

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE: Franklin's Miracle 205 “Honourable Sir,” he began: “Franklin and Silas Deane to the President of Congress, 8 February 1778,” in Willcox, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 25, October 1, 1777, through February 28, ...

Author: Bob Drury

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

ISBN: 9781501152726

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 418


The #1 New York Times bestselling authors of The Heart of Everything That Is return with “a thorough, nuanced, and enthralling account” (The Wall Street Journal) about one of the most inspiring—and underappreciated—chapters in American history: the Continental Army’s six-month transformation in Valley Forge. In December 1777, some 12,000 members of America’s Continental Army stagger into a small Pennsylvania encampment near British-occupied Philadelphia. Their commander in chief, George Washington, is at the lowest ebb of his military career. Yet, somehow, Washington, with a dedicated coterie of advisers, sets out to breathe new life into his military force. Against all odds, they manage to turn a bobtail army of citizen soldiers into a professional fighting force that will change the world forever. Valley Forge is the story of how that metamorphosis occurred. Bestselling authors Bob Drury and Tom Clavin show us how this miracle was accomplished despite thousands of American soldiers succumbing to disease, starvation, and the elements. At the center of it all is George Washington as he fends off pernicious political conspiracies. The Valley Forge winter is his—and the revolution’s—last chance at redemption. And after six months in the camp, Washington fulfills his destiny, leading the Continental Army to a stunning victory in the Battle of Monmouth Court House. Valley Forge is the riveting true story of a nascent United States toppling an empire. Using new and rarely seen contemporaneous documents—and drawing on a cast of iconic characters and remarkable moments that capture the innovation and energy that led to the birth of our nation—Drury and Clavin provide a “gripping, panoramic account” (Publishers Weekly, starred review) of the definitive account of this seminal and previously undervalued moment in the battle for American independence.

Books on Early American History and Culture 1986 1990

The Papers of Benjamin Franklin . Vol . 25 : October 1 , 1777 through February 28 , 1778. New Haven , Conn .: Yale University Press , 1986. OCLC 310601 ; LC Call Number E302 .F82 . Covers part of Franklin's diplomatic mission in France ...

Author: Raymond Irwin

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0313314306

Category: History

Page: 311

View: 941


Explores the scholarly literature on early American history.

Silent Partners

17 (1770), 198–9; vol. 25 (1777), 23, 235; vol. 29 (1779), 159. <> (accessed Feb. 2011). 40 The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 20 (1773), 230, 293; vol. 26 (1778), 361. 41 “The Letters of Mr. Richard Barwell” Pt ...

Author: Amy M. Froide

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191080852

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 612


Silent Partners restores women to their place in the story of England's Financial Revolution. Women were active participants in London's first stock market beginning in the 1690s and continuing through the eighteenth century. Whether playing the state lottery, investing in government funds for retirement, or speculating in company stocks, women regularly comprised between a fifth and a third of public investors. These female investors ranged from London servants to middling tradeswomen, up to provincial gentlewomen and peeresses of the realm. Amy Froide finds that there was no single female investor type, rather some women ran risks and speculated in stocks while others sought out low-risk, low-return options for their retirement years. Not only did women invest for themselves, their financial knowledge and ability meant that family members often relied on wives, sisters, and aunts to act as their investing agents. Moreover, women's investing not only benefitted themselves and their families, it also aided the nation. Women's capital was a critical component of Britain's rise to economic, military, and colonial dominance in the eighteenth century. Focusing on the period between 1690 and 1750, and utilizing women's account books and financial correspondence, as well as the records of joint stock companies, the Bank of England, and the Exchequer, Silent Partners provides the first comprehensive overview of the significant role women played in the birth of financial capitalism in Britain.

Finding Colonial Americas

Yearbook of English Studies 18 ( 1988 ) : 266–67 . The Papers of Benjamin Franklin , vol . 25 : October 1 , 1777 , through February 28 , 1778 , edited by William B. Willcox , et al . Early American Literature 22 ( 1987 ) : 327–29 .

Author: Joseph A. Leo Lemay

Publisher: University of Delaware Press

ISBN: 0874137225

Category: History

Page: 481

View: 481


The stories now being told about the colonial American past represent an "America" newly found, as scholars continue to evaluate and revise the longer-standing stories that have, across the centuries, held particular cultural and critical sway. This collection is a celebration of the widening of scholarly inquire in early American studies, and a tribute to a leading early Americanist whose scholarly career continues to contribute to the opening up of crucial questions of canon.

The Disaffected

“George Walton to Benjamin Franklin,” December 20, 1777, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, vol. 25, ed. William B. Willcox (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986), 327–329. 12. “To John Hancock,” September 23, 1777, PGW, 11:301–302.

Author: Aaron Sullivan

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812296167

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 265


Elizabeth and Henry Drinker of Philadelphia were no friends of the American Revolution. Yet neither were they its enemies. The Drinkers were a merchant family who, being Quakers and pacifists, shunned commitments to both the Revolutionaries and the British. They strove to endure the war uninvolved and unscathed. They failed. In 1777, the war came to Philadelphia when the city was taken and occupied by the British army. Aaron Sullivan explores the British occupation of Philadelphia, chronicling the experiences of a group of people who were pursued, pressured, and at times persecuted, not because they chose the wrong side of the Revolution but because they tried not to choose a side at all. For these people, the war was neither a glorious cause to be won nor an unnatural rebellion to be suppressed, but a dangerous and costly calamity to be navigated with care. Both the Patriots and the British referred to this group as "the disaffected," perceiving correctly that their defining feature was less loyalty to than a lack of support for either side in the dispute, and denounced them as opportunistic, apathetic, or even treasonous. Sullivan shows how Revolutionary authorities embraced desperate measures in their quest to secure their own legitimacy, suppressing speech, controlling commerce, and mandating military service. In 1778, without the Patriots firing a shot, the king's army abandoned Philadelphia and the perceived threat from neutrals began to decline—as did the coercive and intolerant practices of the Revolutionary regime. By highlighting the perspectives of those wearied by and withdrawn from the conflict, The Disaffected reveals the consequences of a Revolutionary ideology that assumed the nation's people to be a united and homogenous front.