The Memory Trace PLE Memory

There is agreement that memory traces are not mere snapshots or tape recordings of the stimulus, that traces are not “first-order isomorphisms” in the words of Shepard and Chipman (1970). But there is hardly any agreement about what ...

Author: Erich Goldmeier

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317695400

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

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There was some agreement about what memory traces were not, but little about what actually did characterize the memory trace. Yet models and theories of memory at the time could not help making implicit and often unrecognized assumptions about the memory trace. Originally published in 1982, this title aimed to strengthen the meagre base on which memory theories rested at the time. It challenges old assumptions and introduces new concepts, foremost the notion of singularity, as they become necessary to understand traces adequately. Some research data of the past was found in need of reinterpretation. The result is a new theory of the memory trace.

The Processing of Memories PLE Memory

Gomulicki observed that memory theories prior to 1950 concerned the following eight aspects of a memory: Localization of the memoryinterms of its anatomical characteristics Formofthe memory trace (whether physiological or spiritual) ...

Author: Norman E. Spear

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317743835

Category: Psychology

Page: 554

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Originally published in 1978, this volume contains the evidence that is most crucial for our understanding the processes of forgetting and retention. Organized in terms of problem areas and issues that are particularly pertinent to understanding these processes, the book deals with both animal and human studies. The author begins by defining the topic and reviewing its historical development. A theoretical orientation follows, and then the author begins to address the major factors that determine what is, and what is not, remembered. Although we cannot yet specify the principles from which we can predict when an episode, once learned, will be remembered well or forgotten entirely, the author demonstrates that such principles are not that far away. He considers the issues that must be resolved before such principles are established, and in the course of doing so covers the major research on why we remember events and why they are forgotten.

Perspectives on Memory Research PLE Memory

With the emergence of suchconceptsas the holograph, however, it hasbecome apparentthatthereis no reason whatever in principlewhy the basisfora unit suchasmemory trace cannot be widely distributed inthebrainbut at the same timebe well ...

Author: Lars-Goran Nilsson

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317685791

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 209

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Originally published in 1979, this book contains papers presented at a conference held in 1977 to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the University of Uppsala. Beyond the commemoration, the main reason for this conference was to get students of memory together to discuss and evaluate the memory research that had already been carried out, was presently underway and to speculate about the type of research in this area that would be carried out in the future. The contributors were specifically asked to concentrate on overall theoretical and metatheoretical questions at the cost of empirical problems. With chapters from many of the leading experts in the field this is an opportunity to enjoy some of their early insights.

Processes of Animal Memory PLE Memory

To account for these findings, a model was proposed based on the competition of independent memory traces. The model extends trace strength theory (Roberts, 1972b; Roberts & Grant, 1974) to the interference situation.

Author: Douglas L. Medin

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317744498

Category: Psychology

Page: 326

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Originally published in 1976, this volume contains new and original contributions of the time addressed to a related set of ideas concerning processes of memory in animals. The theme is that animals remember and that theories of animal learning must take this into account as well as the coding processes that have been assumed to be specific to human beings. The focus of the book is on processes, and some progress is reported in differentiating types of memory. The emphasis in applying animal work to studies of human memory is made not in terms of paradigms but in terms of processes implicated via performance in a variety of tasks. Also, many of the chapters reflect the usefulness of applying a memory framework to a variety of "nonmemory" paradigms. This work will be essential reading for all those interested in animal as well as human memory, and provided the most up to date and broadest examination of animal memory processes at the time, from both a theoretical and conceptual framework.

Functional Disorders of Memory PLE Memory

The remote memories discussed in the previous section are not easily pigeonholed as either episodic or semantic, according to ... Each time a face is seen and attended to, or a name heard, a specific trace or an episodic memory results.

Author: John F. Kihlstrom

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317745525

Category: Psychology

Page: 420

View: 368

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Originally published in 1979, the chapters in this volume summarize the available knowledge pertaining to a variety of functional – as opposed to explicitly organic – amnesias and disruptions of memory. Each chapter is written by an expert, and each author has attempted to integrate his area of inquiry into the contemporary body of theory and research on memory and cognition. Functional memory disorders may prove to be a significant testing ground for current theorizing, and the study of these phenomena may provide insights into memory and cognition that might be obscured in the usual sorts of laboratory investigations. The intent of the volume is to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive account of the processes involved in remembering and forgetting. The reader will find bold new treatments of repression and childhood amnesia, systematic explorations of certain experimental amnesias, and challenging analyses of the anomalies of everyday memory, in this ground-breaking work of the time.

Levels of Processing in Human Memory PLE Memory

reorganization during the retention of a memory trace, the memory per se will be altered and in some cases actually improved. It is unclear whether this improvement occurs through a change in the actual trace during retention of is a ...

Author: Laird S. Cermak

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317749790

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 666

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As a conceptual framework for the investigation of human memory, the levels-of-processing paradigm had enjoyed immense popularity since its introduction in the early 1970s. It was the impetus behind literally hundreds of experiments and was used as an "explanation" for a wide range of retention phenomena. Consequently, a wealth of data and theory had emerged, and this title assimilates and evaluates this information. Originally published in 1979, the distinguished contributors to the volume – both proponents and opponents of the levels-of-processing framework – present here their latest data and ideas on a viewpoint that has been a tremendous influence in memory research and related areas.

Memory Development in Children PLE Memory

Craik andWatkins (1973) suggest that maintenancerehearsal can prevent forgettingwithout actually strengtheningthe memory trace,whereas elaborative rehearsal leadstoa more resiliant memory trace. As thepresent paper demonstrates, ...

Author: Peter A. Ornstein

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317743989

Category: Psychology

Page: 280

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Originally published in 1978, the contributors to this volume offer here chapters and position papers concerned with children’s memory. The chapters represent in-depth reports on children’s sensory memory, rehearsal processes, and organizational processes, as well as treatments of constructive aspects of children’s memory, the representational-development hypothesis, and memory in pre-schoolers. The position papers address critical issues confronting researchers in memory development, including the developmental implications of multistore and levels-of-processing models of memory, as well as distinctions between semantic and episodic memory, recall and recognition, and deliberate and nondeliberate aspects of children’s memory. An historical overview provides an introduction to the volume, leading the reader to the very latest in new directions of research in this area at the time. This volume will be of interest to all concerned with the development of memory in children.

New Directions in Memory and Aging PLE Memory

By the late 1960s, the interference or storage hypothesis was replaced in popularity by the retrieval hypothesis. Instead of the memory trace being changed or lost duringtheretention interval,the retrievalhypothesis attributed the ...

Author: Leonard W. Poon

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317685760

Category: Psychology

Page: 572

View: 105

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Originally published in 1980, this book contains the proceedings from a memorial conference held in honour of George A. Talland, who made a significant contribution to the area of memory and aging. The major objective of the volume was to stimulate research towards a more comprehensive understanding of age related differences in memory. It was also hoped it would provide direction for the application and utilization of research findings in the evaluation and treatment of memory complaints and memory difficulties experienced by the elderly. The book was intended for two broad groups of scientists. The first being researchers in the psychology of memory, and those who were currently active in the research on aging at the time. The second group was those concerned with applying current research findings to the diagnosis and treatment of problems of memory.

Connectionist Models of Memory and Language PLE Memory

However, the nature of the convolution operation places constraints on the maximum sizeofmemory trace that can usefully beusedtostore input vectors of a given size. Yet another possibilityis thatthe nature oftheto be ...

Author: Joseph P. Levy

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317744672

Category: Psychology

Page: 336

View: 548

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Connectionist modelling and neural network applications had become a major sub-field of cognitive science by the mid-1990s. In this ground-breaking book, originally published in 1995, leading connectionists shed light on current approaches to memory and language modelling at the time. The book is divided into four sections: Memory; Reading; Computation and statistics; Speech and audition. Each section is introduced and set in context by the editors, allowing a wide range of language and memory issues to be addressed in one volume. This authoritative advanced level book will still be of interest for all engaged in connectionist research and the related areas of cognitive science concerned with language and memory.

The Representation of Meaning in Memory PLE Memory

Aninput unit ismatched with a memory tracethat contains notonly the representation ofthe input itself but also additional information. Two special cases mustbe distinguished. The firstinvolves a part- whole match, that is, ...

Author: Walter Kintsch

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317744887

Category: Psychology

Page: 280

View: 715

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Originally published in 1974, this volume presents empirical and theoretical investigations of the role of meaning in psychological processes. A theory is proposed for the representation of the meaning of texts, employing ordered lists of propositions. The author explores the adequacy of this representation, with respect to the demands made upon such formulations by logicians and linguists. A sufficiently large number of problems are encompassed by the propositional theory to justify its use in psychological research into memory and language comprehension. A number of different experiments are reported on a wide variety of topics, and these test central portions of this theory, and any that purports to deal with how humans represent meaning. Among the topics discussed are the role of lexical decomposition in comprehension and memory, propositions as the units of recall, and the effects of the number of propositions in a text base upon reading rate and recall. New problems are explored, such as inferential processes during reading, differences in levels of memory for text, and retrieval speed for textual information. On the other hand, a study of retrieval from semantic memory focusses on a problem of much current research. The final review chapter relates the present work to other current research in the area at the time.