The Herrin Massacre of 1922

“Herrin had the mixed blessing,” Malcolm and Webb, Seven Stranded Coal Towns, 3. 2. ... of the Local Press Coverage of the Events Surrounding the Herrin Massacre of June 22, 1922,” by Jim R. Martin, unpublished dissertation, 1993, 63.

Author: Greg Bailey

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476642215

Category: History

Page: 178

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In 1922, a coal miner strike spread across the United States, swallowing the heavily-unionized mining town of Herrin, Illinois. When the owner of the town's local mine hired non-union workers to break the strike, violent conflict broke out between the strikebreakers and unionized miners, who were all heavily armed. When strikebreakers surrendered and were promised safe passage home, the unionized miners began executing them before large, cheering crowds. This book tells the cruel truth behind the story that the coal industry tried to suppress and that Herrin wants to forget. A thorough account of the massacre and its aftermath, this book sets a heartland tragedy against the rise and decline of the coal industry.

Victims of the Herrin Massacre

Twenty-three men were killed in Williamson County and the streets of Herrin, Illinois over a two day killing spree on June 21st and 22nd, 1922.

Author: John Foster

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 1511736984

Category:

Page: 142

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On June 22, 1922, one of the deadliest days in the history of labor in the U.S. occurred near and in the town of Herrin, Williamson County, Illinois. On that day, men who had been imported into the county to work at a strip mine during a nationwide coal strike by members of the United Mine Workers of America, were taken prisoner and unarmed, marched for several miles on a warm June morning under the belief that they would be sent out of the area by train. Along the way it became clear to most of them that a different fate awaited them after a more radical faction of striking miners and their supporters took command of the prisoners. Men, who were normally hard working family men, became cold blooded, heartless and relentless killers. Before that Thursday was over, eighteen men would be dead and lying in a makeshift morgue in Herrin. Numerous wounded would find themselves in the Herrin Hospital or making their way back to Chicago. One of those in the hospital would die within days and another two within a few months. The incident would be dubbed "The Herrin Massacre" and be remembered as such for all time. On Sunday, June 25th, 1922, sixteen of the dead were buried in an out of the way spot at the Herrin City Cemetery referred to as the potter's field. Time, as it is wont to do, eventually erased all evidence of the graves as life returned to normal in Herrin and Williamson County. Recent events in the Herrin City Cemetery have resulted in the discovery of the location of these long lost and forgotten graves. For the first time in more than 90 years, the men who came to Herrin in June of 1922 will be revealed. Includes fourteen pages of photos, some seen for the first time, and also for the first time, an accurate, to scale map of the death march and massacre areas, produced by Professor Steven Di Naso of Eastern Illinois University.

Herrin Massacre

On June 22, 1922, having gone to work in the Lester Strip Mine near Herrin, Ill. as an electrical engineer, Howard E. Hoffman was murdered, one of the victims of the Herrin Massacre. During testimony later a local hospital nurse, ...

Author: Scott Doody

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 9781312744455

Category: History

Page:

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Twenty three men killed in Williamson County and the streets of Herrin, Illinois over a two day killing spree on June 21st and 22nd, 1922. The largest mass murder of non-union labor in the history of America. The event would become known around the world as The Herrin Massacre. Read about the toughest (deadliest) little city in America and the modern day hunt for the massacre victim's lost graves in the potter's field of the Herrin city cemetery. Written by Scott Doody, this four year adventure uncovers the ugly secret of what happens when a town buries their past so deep, it changes their future.

Bloody Williamson

MASSACRE June 22, 1922. The Herrin Massacre. 2. APPROACH TO MASSACRE September 1921. The Southern Illinois Coal Company opens a strip mine in Williamson County, Illinois. November 1921. The company ships its first coal. April 1, 1922.

Author: Paul M. Angle

Publisher: Knopf

ISBN: 9780804152778

Category: True Crime

Page: 300

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This is a horror story of native American violence. It carries a grim lesson for the whole country. Political doctrines have played no part in the violence and murder that have brought much ill fame to one corner of Illinois. On the map, Williamson is just another county. But in history it is a place in which a strange disease has raged for more than eighty years—a disease marked by a pathological tendency to settle differences by force. Fascinated by this, Paul M. Angle, the well-known historian, set out to discover what really had happened. Through enormous research he has been able to reconstruct the whole story in all its horrible, scarifying detail. Using the best techniques of reportage, without editorializing, without subjective coloration, he has produced a narrative beyond imagination. It begins with the "Bloody Vendetta," a feud that rampaged in the 1870s. It deals with labor's success in organizing coal mines in southern Illinois, an affair that twice blew up in violence. It covers the Herrin Massacre of 1922—perhaps the most shocking episode in the history of organized labor in this country—and the subsequent trials. The Ku Klux Klan provides material for four chapters that come to a climax in a fatal duel between the Klan and its opponents. And it ends with the story of the gang war between Charlie Birger and the Shelton brothers. It is a tale to shake the most phlegmatic reader.

Tales and Trails of Illinois

Wrought in Madness " The 1922 Herrin Massacre On the morning of June 22 , 1922 , an enraged mob of union miners wreaked vengeance on a motley collection of scabs and company guards near the southern Illinois town of Herrin .

Author: Stu Fliege

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252070852

Category: History

Page: 236

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Tells the stories of fifty-two significant events in the history of Illinois.

Death Underground

... Zeigler mines came together near the city of Herrin , in Williamson County , in what became known as the Herrin Massacre . On June 22 , 1922 , nineteen men working at a nonunion mine midway between Marion and Herrin were taken from ...

Author: Robert E Hartley

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809387999

Category: History

Page: 250

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Death Underground: The Centralia and West Frankfort Mine Disasters examines two of the most devastating coal mine disasters in United States history since 1928. In two southern Illinois towns only forty miles apart, explosions killed 111 men at the Centralia No. 5 mine in 1947 and 119 men at the New Orient No. 2 mine in West Frankfort in 1951. Robert E. Hartley and David Kenney explain the causes of the accidents, identify who was to blame, and detail the emotional impact the disasters had on the survivors, their families, and their communities. Politics at the highest level of Illinois government played a critical role in the conditions that led to the accidents. Hartley and Kenney address how safety was compromised when inspection reports were widely ignored by state mining officials and mine company supervisors. Highlighted is the role of Driscoll Scanlan, a state inspector at Centralia, who warned of an impending disaster but whose political enemies shifted the blame to him, ruining his career. Hartley and Kenney also detail the New Orient No. 2 mine explosion, the attempts at rescue, and the resulting political spin circulated by labor, management, and the state bureaucracy. They outline the investigation, the subsequent hearings, and the efforts in Congress to legislate greater mine safety. Hartley and Kenney include interviews with the survivors, a summary of the investigative records, and an analysis of the causes of both mine accidents. They place responsibility for the disasters on individual mine owners, labor unions, and state officials, providing new interpretations not previously presented in the literature. Augmented by twenty-nine illustrations, the volume also covers the history, culture, and ethnic pluralism of coal mining in Illinois and the United States.

Workers in America A Historical Encyclopedia 2 volumes

HERRIN MASSACRE The Herrin Massacre was an organized bloodbath in Herrin, Illinois, in Williamson County, that took place on june 22, 1922. Twenty-one deaths occurred in a labor dispute that is less noteworthy for its bloodiness than ...

Author: Robert E. Weir

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781598847192

Category: History

Page: 920

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This encyclopedia traces the evolution of American workers and labor organizations from pre-Revolutionary America through the present day. • Suggested reading for each entry, including both print and online resources • A chronology of important labor highlights • 350 entries covering key topics

Mary Jane s Ghost

Yet, like Mary Jane's exhumation, the Herrin version had its roots in violence that many there would prefer to forget. Known as the Herrin Massacre, it took place on June 22, 1922, in Williamson County, a wild region of Illinois where, ...

Author: Ted Gregory

Publisher: University of Iowa Press

ISBN: 9781609385231

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 203

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Summer 1948. In the scenic, remote river town of Oregon, Illinois, a young couple visiting the local lovers’ lane is murdered. The shocking crime garners headlines from Portland, Maine, to Long Beach, California. But after a sweeping manhunt, no one is arrested and the violent deaths of Mary Jane Reed and Stanley Skridla fade into time’s indifference. Fast forward fifty years. Eccentric entrepreneur Michael Arians moves to Oregon, opens a roadhouse, gets elected mayor, and becomes obsessed with the crime. He comes up with a scandalous conspiracy theory and starts to believe that Mary Jane’s ghost is haunting his establishment. He also reaches out to the Chicago Tribune for help. Arians’s letter falls on the desk of general assignment reporter Ted Gregory. For the next thirteen years, while he ricochets from story to story and his newspaper is deconstructed around him, Gregory remains beguiled by the case of the teenaged telephone operator Mary Jane and twenty-eight-year-old Navy vet Stanley—and equally fascinated by Arians’s seemingly hopeless pursuit of whoever murdered them. Mary Jane’s Ghost is the story of these two odysseys.

The Cry Room and Other Places

And speaking of scabs and militant unions reminds me of another little story he told me about the “Herrin Massacre” on June 22, 1922. I guess you could say it represents another example of him doing the right thing but escaping with ...

Author: John Boaz

Publisher: Trafford Publishing

ISBN: 9781412036368

Category: Abused children

Page: 329

View: 841

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It required fourteen years to complete the following forty-some sketches outlining my family background and personal history from birth until I left home at eighteen in order to try my hand as a university student. Excepting Ralph Ellison's final work, that may be record slowness in pages per day, I'm not sure. Only recently have I experienced a sense of urgency, for surely tomb-time cannot be far away. I enjoyed writing them, fancying each one a regional canvas a la Benton, Curry, Sample, Hogue, Marsh, et al., paintings depicting now dead worlds of steam locomotives and noisy roundhouses, small town killings and tank town tarts, railroad boomers and Main Street toughs, three dollar whore houses and cigarette-fogged pool rooms, death traps masquerading as idyllic farms and school systems that imposed death at an early age on children from "across the tracks." It's all been written, it's all been painted before; but I had to recreate it once again because it was mine, and I loved it.

A Knight of Another Sort

The communal reputation of those who lived in deep southern Illinois had been scarred by the horrific events of the Herrin Massacre that took place on June 22 , 1922 , in which twenty strikebreakers were complicitously murdered by a ...

Author: Gary DeNeal

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809322161

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 275

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In 1913 Charlie Birger began his career as a bootlegger, supplying southern Illinois with whiskey and beer. He was charismatic, with an easygoing manner and a cavalier generosity that made him popular. The stuff of legend, he was part monster, part Robin Hood. In the early days, he would emerge from his restaurant/saloon in tiny Ledford in Saline County with a cigar box full of coins and throw handfuls in the air for the children. Echoing the consensus on Birger, an anonymous gang member called him "enigmatic," noting that "he had a wonderful quality, a heart of gold. There in Harrisburg sometimes he'd support twelve or fifteen families, buy coal, groceries. . . . [But] he had cold eyes, a killer's eyes. He would kill you for something somebody else would punch you in the nose for." Drawing from the colorful cast of the living, the dead, and the soon-to-be-dead—a state shared by many associated with Birger and his enemies, the Shelton gang—DeNeal re-creates Prohibition-era southern Illinois. He depicts the fatal shootout between S. Glenn Young and Ora Thomas, the battle on the Herrin Masonic Temple lawn in which six were slain and the Ku Klux Klan crushed, and the wounding of Williamson County state's attorney Arlie O. Boswell. As the gang wars escalated and the roster of corpses lengthened, the gangsters embraced technology. The Sheltons bombed Birger's roadhouse, Shady Rest, from a single-engine airplane. Both Birger and the Sheltons used armored vehicles to intimidate their enemies, and the chatter of machine gun fire grew common. The gang wars ended with massive arrests, trials, and convictions of gangsters who once had seemed invincible. Charlie Birger was convicted of the murder of West City mayor Joe Adams and sentenced to death. On April 19, 1928, he stood on the gallows looking down on the large crowd that had come to see him die. "It's a beautiful world," Birger said softly as he prepared to leave it.

Bad Boy of Gospel Music

The infamous Herrin Massacre of June 22, 1922, claimed the lives of twenty strikebreakers, killed by miners whom they had replaced. None of the perpetrators was convicted of any crime, despite the fact that many prominent ...

Author: Russ Cheatham

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9781628467444

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 342

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“I messed up,” Calvin Newton lamented, after wasting thirty years and doing time in both state and federal prisons for theft, counterfeiting, and drug violations. “These were years of my life that I could have been singing gospel music.” During his prime, he was super-handsome, athletic, and charged with sexual charisma that attracted women to him like flies to honey. Atop this abundance was his astounding voice, “the voice of an angel.” This book is his prodigal-son story. Audacious, Newton never turned down a dare, even if it meant climbing on the roof of a speeding car or wading into a freezing ocean. As a boy boxer, he was a Kentucky Golden Gloves champ who k.o.’ed his opponent in twenty-three seconds. By his late teens he had been recruited by the Blackwood Brothers, the number-one gospel quartet in the world. In his mid-twenties while he was singing Christian songs with the Oak Ridge Quartet, Newton’s mighty talent and movie-star looks took him deep into hedonism--reckless driving, heavy romancing, and addictive pill popping. As 1950s rock ‘n’ roll began its invasion of gospel, he and two partners formed the Sons of Song, the first all-male gospel trio. Long before the pop sound claimed contemporary Christian music, the Sons of Song turned gospel upside down with histrionic harmony, high-styled tuxedos, and Hollywood verve. Their signature song, “Wasted Years,” foreshadowed Newton’s punishing fall. This biography looks back at the destructive lifestyle that wrecked a sparkling career. When well into his sixties, Newton turned his life around and was able to confront his demons and discuss his prodigal days. He talked extensively with Russ Cheatham about his self- destruction and the great personal expense of his own bad-boy choices and late redemption. In this candid biography, one of gospel’s all-stars discloses a messed-up life that vacillated between achievement and failure, fame and infamy, happiness and grief.

Williamson County Illinois Sesquicentennial History

"Bloody Williamson By Paula M. Davenport The Southern Illinoisan Reprinted with permission Headlines broadcast news of violence and bloodshed after the June 22, 1922, Herrin Massacre. Such reports likely first introduced the world to ...

Author: Stan J. Hale

Publisher: Turner Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780938021766

Category: History

Page: 503

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Resort to Violence

THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS Chapter by Chapter I. MASSACRE June 22 , 1922 , The Herrin Massacre . 2. APPROACH TO MASSACRE September 1921. The Southern Illinois Coal Company opens a strip mine in Williamson County , Illinois . November 1921.

Author: Paul McClelland Angle

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015011292433

Category: Coal miners

Page: 254

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Love s Next Meeting

On June 22, 1922, the situation escalated, and apocalyptic violence broke out when a mob of union workers beat, shot, ... 1929 Gastonia Strike in North Carolina, the Herrin Massacre complicates the narrative of heroes and victims.

Author: Aaron Lecklider

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520381438

Category: History

Page: 376

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How queerness and radical politics intersected—earlier than you thought. Well before Stonewall, a broad cross section of sexual dissidents took advantage of their space on the margins of American society to throw themselves into leftist campaigns. Sensitive already to sexual marginalization, they also saw how class inequality was exacerbated by the Great Depression, witnessing the terrible bread lines and bread riots of the era. They participated in radical labor organizing, sympathized like many with the early prewar Soviet Union, contributed to the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, opposed US police and state harassment, fought racial discrimination, and aligned themselves with the dispossessed. Whether they were themselves straight, gay, or otherwise queer, they brought sexual dissidence and radicalism into conversation at the height of the Left's influence on American culture. Combining rich archival research with inventive analysis of art and literature, Love’s Next Meeting explores the relationship between homosexuality and the Left in American culture between 1920 and 1960. Aaron S. Lecklider uncovers a lively cast of individuals and dynamic expressive works, revealing remarkably progressive engagement with homosexuality among radicals, workers, and the poor. Leftists connected sexual dissidence with radical gender politics, antiracism, and challenges to censorship and obscenity laws through the 1920s and 1930s. In the process, a wide array of activists, organizers, artists, and writers laid the foundation for a radical movement through which homosexual lives and experiences were given shape and new political identities were forged. Love's Next Meeting cuts to the heart of some of the biggest questions in American history: questions about socialism, about sexuality, about the supposed clash still making headlines today between leftist politics and identity politics. What emerges is a dramatic, sexually vibrant story of the shared struggles for liberation across the twentieth century.

Historical Gazetteer of the United States

... 1900 incorporatedas acity; June 21–22, 1922 Herrin Massacre, clash during lengthy strike protesting nonunion hiring,24 killed; Jan. 10, 1962 explosion atBlue Blaze Coal Mine, 11 killed. Highland Madison County Southwestern Illinois,

Author: Paul T. Hellmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135948580

Category: History

Page: 888

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The first place-by-place chronology of U.S. history, this book offers the student, researcher, or traveller a handy guide to find all the most important events that have occurred at any locality in the United States.

Illinois History

... public opinion more violently than the Herrin Massacre , ” wrote historian Paul M. Angle , in his Bloody Williamson : A Chapter in American Lawlessness . Between June 21 and June 22 , 1922 , one of the bloodiest , most brutal crimes ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: WISC:89081289266

Category: Illinois

Page:

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Coal Age

The secably was not too apparent at the time , ond was “ the Herrin massacre , " at Descent Into Futility oil was beginning the campaign that Herrin , Ill . , June 22 , 1922 . was to bring coal a burden of grief Problem No.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105007705671

Category: Coal mines and mining

Page:

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