The Crusades

punishment for sins , and that the crusading indulgences and taxes had caused great heartbreak and misery in Christendom . 7 This argument over whether indulgences could be valid was one of the differences that led to the Protestants ...

Author: Helen J. Nicholson

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0313326851

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 200


The Crusades were fought by "Latin" Christians against Muslims, pagans, and even fellow Christians whom they believed were threatening the existence of their Christian faith.

Byzantium and the Crusades

Lilie , Byzantium and the Crusader States , pp . 164-65 , 179-80 , 220-21 ; Phillips , Defenders of the Holy Land , pp . 123-25 . 30. Theiner and Miklosich , Monumenta , pp . 4-6 . 31. Anselm of Havelberg , Dialogorum Libri III ...

Author: Jonathan Harris

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1852855010

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 800


The first great city to which the Crusaders came in 1089 was not Jerusalem but Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Almost as much as Jerusalem itself, Constantinople was the key to the foundation, survival and ultimate eclipse of the crusading kingdom.

The Crusades

In the period of the Crusades , it is indisputable that Christian Europe enjoyed unchallenged supremacy in the Mediterranean , with dire consequences for the Muslims . Egypt , in particular , lost its former naval strength .

Author: Carole Hillenbrand

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1579582109

Category: History

Page: 726

View: 679


Coinciding with the 900th anniversary of the Crusades, this book is the first general introduction to some of the wider aspects of the history of the Crusades. Prepared by Carole Hillenbrand, a leading authority with a world-wide reputation, The The Crusade is unique in covering the Crusades from the Muslim perspective; it is also a timely reflection on how the phenomenon of the Crusades influenced the Muslim world, then and now--militarily, culturally, and psychologically. The Crusades discusses a group of themes designed to highlight how Muslims reacted to the alien presence of the Crusaders in the heart of traditional Muslim territory. Ideological concerns are examined, and the importance of the concept of jihad is assessed in the context of the gradual recovery of the Holy Land and the expulsion of the Crusaders. There are also chapters devoted to an analysis of the warfare--arms, battles, sieges, fortifications--on the basis of written sources and extant works of art. Also extensively discussed is the complex issue of the interaction between Muslims and Crusaders in a social, economic, and cultural setting. The epilogue traces the profound impact of the Crusades on Muslim consciousness up to the present day. The Crusades is also lavishly illustrated with 500 black-and-white pictures and two full color-plate sections.

Gendering the Crusades

7 Women Warriors during the Crusades , 1095-1254 KEREN CASPI - REISFELD his chapter examines the role played by women in crusader cam- paigns in the geographical region of Palestine as documented in eye - witness accounts and crusader ...

Author: Susan Edgington

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231125992

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 852


This volume presents 13 essays which examine womens roles in the Crusades and medieval reactions to them, including active participation, female involvement in debates surrounding the Crusade, women in the latin east, papal policy, and literary representations.

The Crusades

The most important historiographical work of the crusader lordships. Surveys. of. the. crusades. Balard, M. (2001) Croisades et Orient latin, XIe–XIVe siècle, Paris: A. Colin. A good overview with interesting use of sources.

Author: Nikolas Jaspert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134240425

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 755


This German-to-English translation of a highly successful book is a clear, approachable, student-friendly introduction to the history of the Crusades. With a long chronological span, from the eleventh to the late fifteenth century, and with a wide geographical coverage of the whole of Europe and some of the Middle East, The Crusades is clear, concise and more wide-ranging than most single-volume works. Taking recent scholarship into account, and using boxes, case studies, marginal directions and chronologies, the book is well laid out and easy to follow, providing a comprehensive overview of the crusade movement for students at all university levels.

The Crusades

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns undertaken by Western European countries between the 11th and 16th century. Originally called by the Pope of the Catholic Church, the stated first goal was to take up the cross and ...

Author: Jonathan Howard

Publisher: BookCaps Study Guides

ISBN: 9781610428040

Category: History


View: 895


The Crusades were a series of military campaigns undertaken by Western European countries between the 11th and 16th century. Originally called by the Pope of the Catholic Church, the stated first goal was to take up the cross and restore Christian control over the Holy Land (namely Jerusalem). In total Western Europe engaged in over 10 crusades, though not all were for this original purpose. At first the Crusades were fought to assist the Byzantine Empire, who requested European help in fighting off the expansion of the Muslim Turks. In time, though, the term crusade was used to describe wars against pagans, heretics, and those threatened with excommunication from the Church. Interesting, one set of Crusades actually led to an alliance between Christians and Muslims, and another was called against fellow Catholics. Jonathan Howard looks into the history of the crusades in this short eBook.

The Crusades

From the First to the Ninth – The Course of the Crusades The Crusades officially began on August 15, 1096 but there were hordes of French and German peasants who had started the crusades way before the official date.

Author: IntroBooks

Publisher: IntroBooks


Category: Religion

Page: 40

View: 190


Religion and politics were intertwined with each other in many European empires in the years leading to the Crusades. The Christian Church was going through a power struggle which eventually led to a permanent division which exists till this day. It was known as the East-West Schism. Also called as the Schism of 1054, it marked the division of the church into Roman Catholic churches and Eastern Orthodox churches. This break in the churches occurred because of a difference in viewpoints related to various rituals and rules among Christians, one of the most popular ones being the use of leavened or unleavened bread for the Eucharist. This Schism of 1054 reduced the power and authority of the church among its followers. In an attempt to increase and reinforce the importance of the church, Pope Gregory VII started a reformation which would transform the church from a decentralized religious institution to a centralized one where the Pope held more power and authority.

The World of the Crusades

13 CRUSADING: OUR CONTEMPORARY? 1. D. Hume, History of Great Britain (London 1761), vol. I, 209. 2. C. Tyerman, The Debate on the Crusades (Manchester 2011), p. 222 and n. 12, p. 242, and for what follows, chaps 2–4. 3.

Author: Christopher Tyerman

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300245455

Category: History

Page: 538

View: 485


A lively reimagining of how the distant medieval world of war functioned, drawing on the objects used and made by crusaders Throughout the Middle Ages crusading was justified by religious ideology, but the resulting military campaigns were fueled by concrete objectives: land, resources, power, reputation. Crusaders amassed possessions of all sorts, from castles to reliquaries. Campaigns required material funds and equipment, while conquests produced bureaucracies, taxation, economic exploitation, and commercial regulation. Wealth sustained the Crusades while material objects, from weaponry and military technology to carpentry and shipping, conditioned them. This lavishly illustrated volume considers the material trappings of crusading wars and the objects that memorialized them, in architecture, sculpture, jewelry, painting, and manuscripts. Christopher Tyerman’s incorporation of the physical and visual remains of crusading enriches our understanding of how the crusaders themselves articulated their mission, how they viewed their place in the world, and how they related to the cultures they derived from and preyed upon.

The Crusades

Comparison of the earlier and later crusades Battle between the Templars and Hospitallers . Invasion of Palestine by the Mameluke sultan The Albigensian crusades The Children's crusades Indirect results of the crusades · MAP .

Author: George William Cox

Publisher: London : Longmans, Green

ISBN: BSB:BSB11184370

Category: Crusades

Page: 250

View: 868


This book by George Cox lends a comprehensive overview of the Crusades, their causes, their decline and the outcomes both in the East and in Europe.

Narrating the Crusades

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 See Tyerman, England and the Crusades, p. 281 and pp. 295–301. The proposal itself can be found in Philippe de Mézières, Letter to King Richard II: A Plea Made in 1395for Peace Between England and France ...

Author: Lee Manion

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139917186

Category: Literary Criticism


View: 461


In Narrating the Crusades, Lee Manion examines crusading's narrative-generating power as it is reflected in English literature from c.1300 to 1604. By synthesizing key features of crusade discourse into one paradigm, this book identifies and analyzes the kinds of stories crusading produced in England, uncovering new evidence for literary and historical research as well as genre studies. Surveying medieval romances including Richard Cœur de Lion, Sir Isumbras, Octavian, and The Sowdone of Babylone alongside historical practices, chronicles, and treatises, this study shows how different forms of crusading literature address cultural concerns about collective and private action. These insights extend to early modern writing, including Spenser's Faerie Queene, Marlowe's Tamburlaine, and Shakespeare's Othello, providing a richer understanding of how crusading's narrative shaped the beginning of the modern era. This first full-length examination of English crusading literature will be an essential resource for the study of crusading in literary and historical contexts.