Snow Crystals

Simple Ice Prisms: Chapter 7 The surface attachment kinetics comprise the crux of the snow crystal problem— necessary to understand even basic observations like the Nakaya diagram, yet remarkably difficult to comprehend at even a ...

Author: Kenneth G. Libbrecht

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691223629

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 618


A definitive new investigation of the science of snowflakes by the world’s leading expert A snowflake’s sophisticated symmetry emerges when crystalline ice grows from water vapor within the winter clouds. While certain iconic snowflake shapes are visually familiar to us, microscopic close-ups of falling snow reveal a rich menagerie of lesser-known forms, including slender needle clusters, hollow columns, bullet rosettes, triangular crystals, and exotic capped columns. What explains the myriad and unusual structures of snowflakes that materialize under different atmospheric conditions? In Snow Crystals, Kenneth Libbrecht delves into the science of snowflakes, examining why ice crystals grow the way they do, how patterns emerge, and what they illuminate about the fundamental physics of crystal growth, structure formation, and self-assembly. Libbrecht—the world’s foremost expert on snowflakes—describes the full range of physical processes underlying their occurrence. He explores such topics as the centuries-long development of snow crystal science, the crystalline structure of ice, molecular dynamics at the ice surface, diffusion-limited growth, surface attachment kinetics, computational models of snow crystal growth, laboratory techniques for creating and studying snow crystals, different types of natural snowflakes, and photographing snow crystals. Throughout, Libbrecht’s extensive detailed discussions are accompanied by hundreds of beautiful full-color images. From the molecular dynamics of surface premelting to the aerodynamics of falling snow, Snow Crystals chronicles the continuing quest to fully understand this fascinating phenomenon.

Snow Crystals

Then, if not before, will the snow crystal answer "yes" or "no" without qualification or equivocation, to the various ... тАкINстнЕ SNow сRYSTALS's РlстURE Таking fine pictures of worth-while snow crystals requires good judgment, ...

Author: W. A. Bentley

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486155258

Category: Photography

Page: 226

View: 701


Over 2,000 clear photomicrographs printed on black background of snow crystals. Also frost, rime, hail, and more. Brief text on methodology of research. Absolutely inexhaustible source of design. 202 plates.

Formation of Snow Crystals

The excessive water was phism of crystals in the snow cover , the found to exist in the form of minute droplets mechanism of hardening of snow , and allied of about 1p in diameter which behave like phenomena are also considered to be ...

Author: Ukichirō Nakaya


ISBN: UCR:31210025052356

Category: Snowflakes

Page: 12

View: 241


Physics of Precipitation

Ukichiro Nakaya and Keiji Higuchi Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract — Simultaneous observations of the shape of snow crystals were carried out at 14 points in an area of about 5200 km2 in the Ishikari ...

Author: Helmut Weickmann

Publisher: American Geophysical Union

ISBN: 9780875900056

Category: Cloud physics

Page: 435

View: 664


Snow Ice and Other Wonders of Water

He is also actively involved in taking photographs of natural snow crystals and in growing artificial crystals in the ... about the work by him and others on snow crystals is on the Internet: snowcrystals.

Author: Ivar Olovsson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814749381

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 173


The book illustrates the fascinating world of the different forms of water — from ice and snow to liquid water. The water molecule, H2O, is the second most common molecule in the Universe (behind hydrogen, H2) and ice is the most abundant solid material. Snow and ice appear in a countless large number of different shapes and with properties which can be quite different. Detailed knowledge of the properties of snow is of great importance for the Sami people involved in reindeer herding and several hundred names are used to characterize the different types. The properties of ice and liquid water are very special and unique in several respects. In contrast to most other substances, the density of ice is lower than that of liquid water, which has many very important consequences in our daily life. Water plays a unique role in chemistry and although tremendous research has been spent on this seemingly simple substance, there are still many unsolved questions about the structure of liquid water. The special properties of water are due to hydrogen bonding between the H2O molecules, and this book may be seen as a tribute to the hydrogen bond. The general properties of the hydrogen bond are treated in three separate papers. The hydrogen bond is of fundamental importance in biological systems since all living matter has evolved from and exists in an aqueous environment and hydrogen bonds are involved in most biological processes. There is a hundred times more water molecules in our bodies than the sum of all the other molecules put together. Contents: There are Many Different Types of SnowEarly Snow Crystal ObservationsArtificial Snow CrystalsSnow and Ice Crystals in NatureSnow for Pleasure and ArtThe Ice Surface and Formation of Ice SpikesStructure and Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and IcePhysical Properties of Water and Ice; Significance in NatureThe Water Molecule is UniqueThe Role of the Lone Pairs in Hydrogen BondingComparison of the Proton Transfer Path in Hydrogen Bonds from Theoretical Potential Energy Surfaces and the Concept of Conservation of Bond OrdersThe Hydrogen Bond in the Solid State Readership: Interested lay readers. Key Features:The book differs from most books on snow as it covers early, historical observations as well as present active research. Some of the snow pictures are unique and illustrate fundamental physical factsThe beauty of snow crystals is amply illustrated, but basic facts about structure and properties are treated as well. Why does ice float on water? Why is the maximum density of water at +4°C?Keywords:Snow;Ice;Water;Hydrogen Bond

Research Report

A sintering of five spherical ice crystals is shown in Figure 8d . Spatial snow crystal , Bentley and Humphreys ( 1931 ) stated that they occasionally observed snow arystals upon which small supercooled water droplets had attached and ...



ISBN: UCAL:B2893388

Category: Cold regions


View: 301


Snow Crystals

Contains many illustrations and extensive descriptions ( in Polish ) and a voluminous bibliography . BENTLEY , WILSON A. , various studies of the snow crystal , with numerous illustrations . Monthly Weather Review , vol . 29 , pp .

Author: Wilson Alwyn Bentley


ISBN: UCSD:31822039258314

Category: Crystallization

Page: 227

View: 207


Snow crystals -- Windowpane frost -- Dew on vegetation -- Raindrops on grass -- Dew on spider webs -- Dew on wooly bear caterpillar -- Dew on blade of grass and fly -- Dew on grass tops -- Dew on grasshopper.

The Avalanche Handbook

Radiation recrystallization provides an exsince crystal forms are usually a second - order effect ample . ... These assumptions are equivalent to considerobservers often try to determine the size of crystals ing alpine snow as a ...

Author: David McClung

Publisher: The Mountaineers Books

ISBN: 0898868092

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 342

View: 257


Technical yet accessible, The Avalanche Handbook, 3rd Edition, covers the formation, character, effects, and control of avalanches; rescue techniques; and research on understanding and surviving avalanches. Illustrated with nearly 200 updated illustrations, photos and examples, the revised edition offers exhaustive information on contributing weather and climate factors, snowpack analysis, the newest transceiver search techniques, and preventative and protective measures, including avalanche zoning and control. It contains new information on the unique characteristics of alpine snow, snow slab instability, terrain variables, skier triggering of avalanches, and the nature of avalanche motion. Plus brand-new chapters on the elements of backcountry avalanche forecasting and the decision-making process.

Review of the Properties of Snow and Ice

Nakaya , U. , Y. Sekido and M. Tada , 1936 : Notes on irregular snow crystals and snow pellets Journal of Faculty of Science , The Hokkaido Imperial University , Series II , 1 ( 8 ) : 215-226 , 7 plates .

Author: University of Minnesota. Engineering Experiment Station


ISBN: UCR:31210025054089

Category: Ice

Page: 156

View: 771