Questions Claims and Evidence

A guide to science teaching focuses on literacy and inquiry to increase students' interest in science, improve their analysis skills, and increase their science writing skills.

Author: Lori Norton-Meier

Publisher: Heinemann Educational Books

ISBN: 0325017271

Category: Education

Page: 182

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A guide to science teaching focuses on literacy and inquiry to increase students' interest in science, improve their analysis skills, and increase their science writing skills.

An Introduction to Systematic Reviews

Figure 10.1 Appraising the basis of a review's aims and evidence claims 2 Throughout the chapter we refer to review questions and related evidence claims. For brevity we use 'review question' to include sub-questions and evidence claims ...

Author: David Gough

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781473968219

Category:

Page: 352

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Focused on actively using systematic review as method, this book provides clear, step-by-step advice on the logic and processes of systematic reviewing. Stressing the importance of precision and accuracy, this new edition carefully balances a need for insightful theory with real-world pragmatism; it introduces a wide range of cutting-edge approaches to research synthesis including text mining, living reviews and new ideas in mixed methods reviews such as qualitative comparative analysis. The book also includes: A new chapter on statistical synthesis Coverage of computer-assisted methods and relevant software Expanded sections on data extraction and management A guide to working with many different types of data including longitudinal and panel. Packed with examples from across the social sciences, this book helps students and researchers alike in turning systematic reviews into recommendations for policy and practice.

Negotiating Science

Knowing from the inside out how argument works is a literacy skill now universally recognized as essential. This is the goal of real reading, writing, and speaking - and finally the gift of real science.

Author: Brian Hand

Publisher: Heinemann Educational Books

ISBN: STANFORD:36105132264263

Category: Education

Page: 226

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Knowing from the inside out how argument works is a literacy skill now universally recognized as essential. This is the goal of real reading, writing, and speaking - and finally the gift of real science. I am grateful to the authors of this volume for making these gifts available to science and literacy teachers, but most importantly, to all of our students. - Wendy Saul Author of Science Workshop The best way to transform students' scientific thinking is by transforming their science writing. Writing is thinking and with Negotiating Science you'll move from rote procedures to the kind of writing that real scientists do. Your students will learn to negotiate meaning from the results of their work and to argue for their ideas - posing questions, documenting evidence, making claims, and sharing data. Perfect for science notebooks! Leading you through an argument-based approach to science writing that is grounded in highly effective practices, Negotiating Science: demonstrates what good science arguments look like through student samples. models and supports top-notch instruction through teaching tools and templates adaptable to any classroom. containsguidelines that make assessment seamless and manageable. includes “Have a Go” activities help you make the transition from traditional science writing to argument-based writing. Best of all, the writing Negotiating Science advocates can support your school's nonfiction and content-area writing goals. Give students the chance to deepen their connection to science by writing for authentic purposes. See the dramatic difference it makes when students negotiate the meaning of concepts and content the way real scientists do. All while you meet schoolwide writing objectives. Read Negotiating Science and unlock the power of writing in your science classroom.

More Voices from the Classroom

The intent of this book is to provide a rich and broad view of the impact of argument-based inquiry in classrooms from the perspective of the teacher. There are two important reasons for such a book.

Author: Brian Hand

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789463510950

Category: Education

Page: 8

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The intent of this book is to provide a rich and broad view of the impact of argument-based inquiry in classrooms from the perspective of the teacher. There are two important reasons for such a book. The first is that we as researchers constantly work to present our views of these experiences with the voice of the teachers only being relayed through the perspective of the researcher. We need as a community to listen to what the teachers are telling us. The second reason is that as demands grow to provide opportunities for students to pose questions, make claims, and provide evidence, that is, to think critically and reason like scientists, we need to understand what this looks like from the perspective of the teacher. This book brings together a range of teachers from several countries who have used the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to teach argument-based inquiry. These teachers have all gone through professional development programs and successfully implemented the approach at a high level.

Explaining Cancer

Moreover, when and whether we have “sufficient” evidence for causal claims depend ultimately, in my view, on the question “sufficient for what"? Given that evidence for causal claims may be weaker or stronger, we may have degrees of ...

Author: Anya Plutynski

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199967469

Category: Science

Page: 272

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In Explaining Cancer, Anya Plutynski addresses a variety of philosophical questions that arise in the context of cancer science and medicine. She begins with the following concerns: · How do scientists classify cancer? Do these classifications reflect nature's "joints"? · How do cancer scientists identify and classify early stage cancers? · What does it mean to say that cancer is a "genetic" disease? What role do genes play in "mechanisms for" cancer? · What are the most important environmental causes of cancer, and how do epidemiologists investigate these causes? · How exactly has our evolutionary history made us vulnerable to cancer? Explaining Cancer uses these questions as an entrée into a family of philosophical debates. It uses case studies of scientific practice to reframe philosophical debates about natural classification in science and medicine, the problem of drawing the line between disease and health, mechanistic reasoning in science, pragmatics and evidence, the roles of models and modeling in science, and the nature of scientific explanation.

Military Construction Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2015

( Questions for the Record submitted by Congresswoman Lowey for the Honorable Eric K. Shinseki follows :) Claims ... Fully Developed Claims ( FDC ) are submitted together with the claim - specific information and evidence needed to ...

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105050669451

Category: United States

Page:

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Federal Register

B. The Customer shall next present his claim , evidence and witnesses , if any , and submit to questions from the ... C. Following the presentation of evidence , each Party shall briefly summarize his position , relating his claims to ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCLA:31158003879326

Category: Administrative law

Page:

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Themes from G E Moore

In Principia, Moore shockingly denies that there can be evidence for claims about what is intrinsically good. He thinks this follows from ... Unlike Moore, he is unsympathetic to phenomenalism (see, e.g., Fundamental Questions, ch. 4).

Author: Susana Nuccetelli

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199281725

Category: Philosophy

Page: 348

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These sixteen original essays, whose authors include some of the world's leading philosophers, examine themes from the work of the Cambridge philosopher G. E. Moore (1873-1958), and demonstrate his considerable continuing influence on philosophical debate. Part I bears on epistemological topics, such as scepticism about the external world, the significance of common sense, and theories of perception. Part II is devoted to themes in ethics, such as Moore's open question argument, his non-naturalism, utilitarianism, and his notion of organic unities.

Being and Learning

of the claim that this question makes on us. ... A natural reaction to such a claim is one of annoyance, irritation. ... that comes about when we are held in abeyance by a claim that contradicts the 'direct evidence' of our experience.

Author: Eduardo M. Duarte

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789460919480

Category: Education

Page: 398

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“Education is not an art of putting sight into the eye that can already see, but one of turning the eye towards the proper gaze of Being. That’s what must be managed!” Plato insists. This claim is the take-off point for Eduardo Duarte’s meditations on the metaphysics and ontology of teaching and learning. In Being and Learning he offers an account of learning as an attunement with Being’s dynamic presencing and unconcealment, which Duarte explores as the capacity to respond and attend to the matter that stands before us, or, in Arendtian terms, to love the world, and to be with others in this world. This book of ‘poetic thinking’ is a chronicle of Duarte’s ongoing exploration of the question of Being, a philosophical journey that has been guided primarily through a conversation with Heidegger, and which also includes the voices of Plato, Aristotle, Heraclitus, Nietzsche, as well Lao Tzu and the Buddha, among others. In Being and Learning, Duarte undertakes a ‘phenomenology of the original’: a writing that consciously and conspicuously interrupts the discursive field of work in philosophy of education. As the late Reiner Schurmann described this method: “it recalls the ancient beginnings and it anticipates a new beginning, the possible rise of a new economy among things, words and actions.” Being and Learning is a work of parrhesia: a composition of free thought that disrupts the conventional practice of philosophy of education, and thereby open up gaps and spaces of possibility in the arrangement of words, concepts, and ideas in the field. With this work Eduardo Duarte is initiating new pathways of thinking about education.

The Fortunes of Inquiry

human inquiry would have a potentially unlimited capacity to resolve general questions ; and it is also at odds with the ... These claims have been defended by appeal to historical evidence ; but the validity of that evidence is itself ...

Author: Nicholas Jardine

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198249292

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

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Until about the middle of this century philosophers and scientists commonly held that science showed an accumulation of a body of objective knowledge. This view has been very widely challenged over recent years; but in this study Dr Jardine offers a defence.The discussion involves consideration of many controversial issues concerning truth in science, interpretation of past theories, and grounds of scientific method. The author writes with a careful appreciation of the complexities involved and argues for a distinctive point of view with skill andclarity.

Digital Imaging for Cultural Heritage Preservation

We shall see in Section 8.5, however, that there is little persuasive supporting evidence for such claims. It is hard to imagine persuasive visual evidence, at least for the period in question, other than if the painting included purely ...

Author: Filippo Stanco

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439821732

Category: Computers

Page: 523

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This edition presents the most prominent topics and applications of digital image processing, analysis, and computer graphics in the field of cultural heritage preservation. The text assumes prior knowledge of digital image processing and computer graphics fundamentals. Each chapter contains a table of contents, illustrations, and figures that elucidate the presented concepts in detail, as well as a chapter summary and a bibliography for further reading. Well-known experts cover a wide range of topics and related applications, including spectral imaging, automated restoration, computational reconstruction, digital reproduction, and 3D models.

Theory and Methods for Sociocultural Research in Science and Engineering Education

subsequent turns of talk (e.g. posing a question, connecting to previous turns, shifting to a new focus, etc.). ... questions that probe rationale • Offering supportive claims, evidence, rationales (affirming) Speaking tentatively, ...

Author: Gregory J. Kelly

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351139915

Category: Education

Page: 298

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Introducing original methods for integrating sociocultural and discourse studies into science and engineering education, this book provides a much-needed framework for how to conduct qualitative research in this field. The three dimensions of learning identified in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) create a need for research methods that examine the sociocultural components of science education. With cutting-edge studies and examples consistent with the NGSS, this book offers comprehensive research methods for integrating discourse and sociocultural practices in science and engineering education and provides key tools for applying this framework for students, pre-service teachers, scholars, and researchers.

Code of Federal Regulations

EVIDENCE 19.141 Rule 41 ; submission of additional evidence in support of appeal . ... All questions on claims involving benefits under the laws administered by the Veterans Administration are subject to review on appeal to the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015022677168

Category: Administrative law

Page:

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Assessing Media Education

Consistently does all or almost all of the following: Accurately interprets evidence, statements, graphic, questions, etc. Identifies the salient arguments (reasons and claims) pro and con. Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates major ...

Author: William G. Christ

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135606367

Category: Education

Page: 600

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This component of Assessing Media Education is intended for those who would like to know how other schools have grappled with implementing assessment initiatives, and who have used assessment to improve their programs.

Developing Core Literacy Proficiencies Grade 7

These texts not only equip students with key ideas for participating knowledgeably in the important discussions of our time, but also contain the complexity of expression necessary for developing college- and career-ready literacy skills.

Author: Odell Education

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119192596

Category: Education

Page: 312

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The Developing Core Literacy Proficiencies program is an integrated set of English Language Arts/Literacy units spanning grades 6-12 that provide student-centered instruction on a set of literacy proficiencies at the heart of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading Closely for Textual Details Making Evidence-Based Claims Making Evidence-Based Claims about Literary Technique (Grades 9-12) Researching to Deepen Understanding Building Evidence-Based Arguments The program approaches literacy through the development of knowledge, literacy skills, and academic habits. Throughout the activities, students develop their literacy along these three paths in an integrated, engaging, and empowering way. Knowledge: The texts and topics students encounter in the program have been carefully selected to expose them to rich and varied ideas and perspectives of cultural significance. These texts not only equip students with key ideas for participating knowledgeably in the important discussions of our time, but also contain the complexity of expression necessary for developing college- and career-ready literacy skills. Literacy Skills: The program articulates and targets instruction and assessment on twenty CCSS-aligned literacy skills ranging from “making inferences” to “reflecting critically.” Students focus on this set of twenty skills throughout the year and program, continually applying them in new and more sophisticated ways. Academic Habits: The program articulates twelve academic habits for students to develop, apply, and extend as they progress through the sequence of instruction. Instructional notes allow teachers to introduce and discuss academic habits such as “preparing” and “completing tasks” that are essential to students’ success in the classroom. The program materials include a comprehensive set of instructional sequences, teacher notes, handouts, assessments, rubrics, and graphic organizers designed to support students with a diversity of educational experiences and needs. The integrated assessment system, centered around the literacy skills and academic habits, allows for the coherent evaluation of student literacy development over the course of the year and vertically across all grade levels.

The Documentary Film Book

If Westmoreland's claims provide an assertion, the images put that assertion to the lie, and seemingly provide evidence for its ... fictionalise their subjects, the question of whether images can serve as evidence becomes moot.

Author: Brian Winston

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781838718756

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 416

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Powerfully posing questions of ethics, ideology, authorship and form, documentary film has never been more popular than it is today. Edited by one of the leading British authorities in the field, The Documentary Film Book is an essential guide to current thinking on documentary film. In a series of fascinating essays, key international experts discuss the theory of documentary, outline current understandings of its history (from pre-Flaherty to the post-Griersonian world of digital 'i-Docs'), survey documentary production (from Africa to Europe, and from the Americas to Asia), consider documentaries by marginalised minority communities, and assess its contribution to other disciplines and arts. Brought together here in one volume, these scholars offer compelling evidence as to why, over the last few decades, documentary has come to the centre of screen studies.

On Your Own North Carolina Small Claims Court

TYPES OF EVIDENCE There are generally three types of evidence you need to be concerned with in pursuing your Small ... A typical sequence of events and questions leading up to the introduction of real evidence (the object) into court ...

Author: Mary A. Nixon

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1581128851

Category: Law

Page: 240

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If you are interested in representing yourself or your business in Small Claims Court in North Carolina in order to collect your debts or settle disputes, ON YOUR OWN - NORTH CAROLINA SMALL CLAIMS COURT is the book for you! Employing an attorney to represent you or your business may or may not make economic sense. The debt you are seeking to recover may be less than the fee charged by an attorney. While it may be economically desirable for an attorney to represent you or your business in Small Claims Court in some situations, you may find it more advantageous to represent yourself or your business ON YOUR OWN. An individual or business with a small claim may wish to pursue the indebtedness without an attorney, but may not possess sufficient knowledge about the way the court operates to feel competent to do so. If the debt is too small to justify employing an attorney or if the case never gets to court because the plaintiff does not have an adequate amount of knowledge of his or her interests, the debt goes unpaid. The plaintiff loses either way, because the debt is still not paid. By reading and studying this book, you will gain knowledge to assist you in maintaining more control over your bottom line. Larger net profits are important for any business enterprise. The materials contained on the pages of this book will show you how to better manage your company's small claim debt collection efforts by effectively using the Small Claims Court. You should be able to significantly increase your odds of collecting your judgment in Small Claims Court -- a court specifically designed by state law for the litigant with multiple small claims. ON YOUR OWN - NORTH CAROLINA SMALL CLAIMS COURT is a book that offers basic guidance to the individual who has never been to Small Claims Court, yet provides material that should be of assistance to the individual who has represented himself or his business on a regular basis. I cannot overemphasize methodical study and understanding of the law. If this book is read with care and understood, it will be helpful to you in the collection of small claims and the settlement of disputes. Mary Anne Nixon Attorney at Law

The Architecture Student s Handbook of Professional Practice

Product manufacturer points to its product data and claims it as “evidence”; however, closer inspection reveals that the data is not changing the way the product has been conceived and/or produced. EVIDENCE-BASED DESIGN METHODS Question ...

Author: American Institute of Architects

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118738955

Category: Architecture

Page: 672

View: 243

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The essential guide to beginning your career in architecture The Architecture Student's Handbook of Professional Practice opens the door to the vast body of knowledge required to effectively manage architectural projects and practice. A professional architect is responsible for much more than design; this book is specifically designed to help prepare you for the business and administrative challenges of working in the real-world—whether you are a student or are just starting out in practice. It provides clear insight into the legal, financial, marketing, management, and administrative tasks and issues that are integral to keeping a firm running. This new edition has been restructured to be a companion textbook for students undertaking architectural practice classes, while also fulfilling the specific knowledge needs of interns and emerging professionals. It supplements information from the professional handbook with new content aimed at those setting out in the architectural profession and starting to navigate their careers. New topics covered in this new edition include: path to licensure, firm identity, professional development, strategic planning, and integrated project delivery. Whether you want to work at a top firm, strike out on your own, or start the next up-and-coming team, the business of architecture is a critical factor in your success. This book brings the fundamentals together to give you a one-stop resource for learning the reality of architectural practice. Learn the architect's legal and ethical responsibilities Understand the processes of starting and running your own firm Develop, manage, and deliver projects on time and on budget Become familiar with standard industry agreements and contracts Few architects were drawn to the profession by dreams of writing agreements and negotiating contracts, but those who excel at these everyday essential tasks impact their practice in innumerable ways. The Architecture Student's Handbook of Professional Practice provides access to the "nuts and bolts" that keep a firm alive, stable, and financially sound.

The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America

with the contractor a variety of questions advice and assistance of the Office of of fact . ... ing as to the specific points at issue . or evidence in support of his claims , if Where the claim is not clear , the conhe so desires .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105063537216

Category: Administrative law

Page:

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The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

Preliminary Injunctions Germany England Wales Italy and France

If the Respondent does not contest the facts as claimed in a conclusive claim, there is no need to take evidence. ... the 'Glaubhaftmachung' of 'Arrestanspruch' and 'Arrestgrund' is not a question of admissibility, but of the merits of ...

Author: Torsten Frank Koschinka

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789041158505

Category: Law

Page: 338

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Every legal system, at the outset of court proceedings, has rules aimed at safeguarding parties' interests during the time needed to obtain a judgment on the merits. However, as the European Commission put the case in a 1997 communication, 'a comparative survey of national legislation reveals that there are virtually no definitions of provisional/protective measures and that the legal situations vary widely. The only convergence that can be ascertained is between the function of such measures.' Recognizing that after almost twenty years the issues noted by the Commission have not found a satisfactory solution, here at last is a book that collects and compares the ideas behind the 'preliminary injunction' (an expression the authors use as a general term for a great variety of provisional and precautionary measures) with an eye to defining and organizing this small but very important aspect of the law. Although the analysis touches on relevant measures from many countries, the authors focus on the national legislation in four EU Member States – England, France, Germany, and Italy – to highlight the nature of the differences these kinds of measures entail. They compare and contrast such aspects as the following: – differences in civil procedure; - the types of measures that may be taken; - the terms on which preliminary injunctions, which are normally directly enforceable, may be ordered by a court; - the kind of assets that may be affected; - the relationship between proceedings in an interlocutory action and proceedings on the substance; - necessity of credible evidence that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage will result if no preliminary injunction is granted; and - the role of protective measures in summary proceedings. The study also describes and examines the recent European order for payment (EC Regulation No. 1896/2006), the most significant existing transnational instrument aimed at granting preliminary protection of creditors' rights. This incomparable book represents a major contribution to a growing debate, particularly in Europe, on ways and means of securing equivalent protection for all litigants. Given the variety of legal systems and of measures available, the debate will have to focus on the functions served by provisional/protective measures, the minimum conditions to be satisfied, the adversary procedure requirement, the enforceability of the measures, and possible redress procedures. There is no more thorough and reliable resource available to clarify these issues for practitioners and interested policymakers everywhere.