Proto Japanese

CHAPTER 3 PROTO - JAPANESE AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF DIALECTS TAKUICHIRO ONISHI The National Institute for Japanese Language 1 . Introduction This chapter has three purposes . The first is to show the existence of a contrastive ...

Author: Bjarke Frellesvig

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027248095

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 254

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Proto-Japanese is the reconstructed language stage from which all later varieties of Japanese, including Ryukyuan, descend. It has been studied both as an end in itself (as the genetic code of the Japanese language) and as part of endeavors to clarify the genetic affiliation of Japanese. Based on the state of the field, especially as represented in Samuel E. Martin's seminal work The Japanese Language Through Time (1987), this volume singles out key areas in the reconstruction of proto-Japanese where salient progress has been or promises to be made since Martin. Contributions were invited from scholars working on the following areas: segmental phonology, use of dialect evidence, accent, morphology, and syntax. While the book first of all presents new research which advances our understanding of proto-Japanese, it also gives an overview over the state of the art in the field and its main issues.

Reconstructing Proto Afroasiatic Proto Afrasian

Of course , in the case of Semitic , for the reasons noted above , an important source is reconstructions of the pre - proto - Semitic forms . Berber data figures in the outlining of proto - Afroasiatic vowel history , but otherwise is ...

Author: Christopher Ehret

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520097998

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 580

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This work provides the first truly comprehensive and systematic reconstruction of proto-Afroasiatic (proto-Afrasian). It rigorously applies, throughout, the established canon and techniques of the historical-comparative method. It also fully incorporates the most up-to-date evidence from the distinctive African branches of the family, Cushitic, Chadic, and Omotic. Using concrete and specific evidence and argument, the author proposes full vowel and consonant reconstructions and a provisional reckoning of tone. Each aspect of these reconstructions is substantiated in detail in an extensive etymological vocabulary of more than 1000 roots. The results, while confirming some previous views on proto-Afroasiatic (proto-Afrasian), revise or overturn many others, and add much that is new.

Proto Slavic Inflectional Morphology

In the following paragraphs I shall go into more detail with my view on the concept of a proto-language. For the distinction between “Proto-Slavic” and “Common Slavic” see §1.5.5. According to Antonsen (1994: 58), “a proto-language is ...

Author: Thomas Olander

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004270503

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 425

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In this volume, Thomas Olander offers a historical analysis of the inflectional endings of Proto-Slavic, comparing them with the corresponding endings in related languages and reconstructing the Proto-Indo-European point of departure.

From Proto Indo European to Proto Germanic

Proto-Northwest Germanic. *ahslu 243 “bregdana 254 “brestana 254 *bu/okkaz 139 “drepana 211, 274 “flekkaz 139 “flikkija 139 “flokkaz 139 *frakkaz 139 *hattuz 139 *hnakkö 139 *hnewwana, “hrewwana 268 *kroppaz 139 3. Proto-West Germanic.

Author: Donald A. Ringe

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198792581

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 417

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Describing the earliest reconstructable stages of the prehistory of English, this title outlines the grammar of Proto-Indo-European and considers the changes by which one dialect of that prehistoric language developed into Proto-Germanic.

Toward Proto Nostratic

A New Approach to the Comparison of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Afroasiatic Allan R. Bomhard. asiatic. In my opinion, we should not expect to find many similarities in the morphology of these two proto-languages.

Author: Allan R. Bomhard

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027280169

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 356

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This book represents the culmination of the author’s work to date – it incorporates and updates previous articles and adds much new material. This book is not – nor was it ever intended to be – a comparative grammar of either the Indo-European or the Afroasiatic language families. It is, rather, a comparison of Proto-Indo-European with Proto-Afroasiatic. While this is not the first attempt to demonstrate that Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Afroasiatic are genetically related, it is the first to use the radical revision of the Proto-Indo-European consonantal system proposed by Thomas V. Gamkrelidze, Paul J. Hopper, and Vjačeslav V. Ivanov. Moreover, unlike previous endeavors, this is the first to make extensive use of data from the non-Semitic branches of Afroasiatic. The assumptions underlying this investigation of the possibility of the common genetic origin of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Afroasiatic differ considerably from the assumptions made in other works on "Nostratic"; the methodological approach followed in this monograph has been one of rigorous adherence to the time-honored principles of comparative reconstruction.

Land Proto Industry and Population in Catalonia c 1680 1829

The original proposal saw proto-industry as potentially, though not always, providing the basis on which subsequent factory industry could be built through the accumulation of skilled labour and capital.

Author: Julie Marfany

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317108344

Category: History

Page: 230

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This monograph makes a fresh contribution to a longstanding but far from exhausted debate concerning the transition to capitalism in Europe. The work investigates key aspects of this transformation: the changes on the land, the origins of the industrial revolution, the modern rise of population and the growth of markets. It does so from a new perspective, however, by focusing on an area of southern Europe, Catalonia. Catalonia's interest as an area for study lies in its precocity within a southern European context, as one of the few regions on the European periphery to industrialise in comparable ways and at the same time as areas of northern Europe. Population growth was similarly rapid. The study engages critically with several important debates in economic and social history, such as the transition to agrarian capitalism, whether or not sharecropping should be viewed as a backwards form of agricultural production, theories of proto-industrialisation and theories of population change. It also questions claims that the nuclear family of north-western Europe was a superior model for industralisation than the more extended family structures prevalent in southern Europe. Not only could the extended family be as dynamic as the nuclear family when required but, more importantly, attention needs to be paid to other institutions and factors that may have conditioned family forms and decision-making processes. The approach taken by this work is a micro-study of one community, Igualada, an important proto-industrial centre but also situated within the viticultural region. It grew rapidly over the eighteenth century from around 1,700 inhabitants in 1717 to 4,900 in 1787 and around 7,700 by 1830. Only at the micro-level is it feasible for an individual study to reconstruct networks of relationships and patterns of decision-making at the household level. At the core of the book, therefore, is a family reconstitution of 8,700 families, supplemented by a wide body of additional sources, such as landholding contracts, tax records, manorial surveys, inventories, marriage contracts and letters.

The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic

Proto. Oceanic. speech. community. Where did Lapita culture come from? What language did the bearers of the Lapita complex speak? It is possible to answer these questions with considerable assurance because of a remarkably close fit ...

Author: Malcolm Ross

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 9781921313196

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 417

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This is the second in a series of five volumes on the lexicon of Proto Oceanic, the ancestor of the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family. Each volume deals with a particular domain of culture and/or environment and consists of a collection of essays each of which presents and comments on lexical reconstructions of a particular semantic field within that domain. Volume 2 examines how Proto Oceanic speakers described their geophysical environment. An introductory chapter discusses linguistic and archaeological evidence that locates the Proto Oceanic language community in the Bismarck Archipelago in the late 2nd millennium BC. The next three chapters investigate terms used to denote inland, coastal, reef and open sea environments, and meteorological phenomena. A further chapter examines the lexicon for features of the heavens and navigational techniques associated with the stars. How Proto Oceanic speakers talked about their environment is also described in three further chapters which treat property terms for describing inanimate objects, locational and directional terms, and terms related to the expression of time.

Proto Indo European Language

“By the 19th century, linguists knew that all modern Indo-European languages descended from a single tongue, called Proto-IndoEuropean, or PIE, it was spoken by a people who lived from roughly 4500 to 2500 B.C., and left no written ...

Author: Alvaro Hans

Publisher: Notion Press

ISBN: 9781948096331

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 252

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The Indo-European (IE) is the largest among the family of languages in the world, with 445 languages spoken by around 46% of the global population. Linguists have been looking for the mother of IE family, fondly called Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language but their decades of search have not revealed the face of PIE till now. What others have been missing so far, the author of this book Alvaro Hans has found out—by walking side-wards, jumping walls and looking for ‘her’, in unusual places. This book is all about that exciting journey and a deciding destination.

Proto Fula Sereer

... 283, 284, 287–305, 307–310, 313, 315, 317 Proto-Atlantic, vii, 7, 49, 53, 63–65, 72, 86, 94, 95, 99, 102, 105, 110, 116, 121–127, 129–132, 145, 146, 149, 169, 182, 195, 213, 219, 289, 290, 295, 298, 302–304, 315 Proto-Bantu, 53, 63, ...

Author: Konstantin Pozdniakov

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9783985540303

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 370

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This monograph proposes a reconstruction of the lexicon, the morphophonology and the noun class system of Proto-Fula-Sereer (~3500 BP). Fula-Sereer represents one of the six branches of the North-Atlantic group. North-Atlantic, together with the Bak group of languages, forms the Atlantic family, which represents a separate branch within the Niger-Congo macro-family. The lexical reconstruction of the proto-language of a group such as Fula-Sereer requires the solution of a number of questions that are of interest for the general theory of comparative studies. These questions deal with the morphophonological mutations of root-initial consonants. Since consonant mutations were structured into morphological paradigms already at the Proto-Fula-Sereer stage, the evolution of initial consonantism in Fula and Sereer was based not on regular phonetic changes, but on massive irregular analogous changes. The reconstruction of Proto-Fula-Sereer consonant mutations is given in Chapter 2. In Chapters 3-6 the author proposes a reconstruction of the initial consonants. Next, the reconstruction of final consonants (Chapter 7) as well as vowels (Chapter 8) is given. In Chapter 9, taking in account the lexical cognates, the long-standing problem of the PFS noun class reconstruction is rediscussed. The Appendix provides a list of ~720 lexical reconstructions and their approximate meanings.