Pronominal Reference

One issue that I have left untouched is the explanation for having tighter restrictions on pronominal reference when the pronoun and noun phrase are contained in the same minimal S domain. Although I can only speculate about this, ...

Author: L. Solan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400970045

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 237

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Linguistic theory has seen a substantial shift in focus during the past decade. Whereas early research in generative grammar sought descriptive adequacy through the proliferation of transformational rules, recent efforts have concentrated on defining systems of principles that restrict the application of a greatly simplified sys tem of rules of grammar. These principles, because of their broad application within a particular language, and their appearance in a wide range of languages under investigation, are claimed to reflect innate cognitive structures often termed universal grammar. Accompanying this new, and very interesting research in linguis tic theory is an interest in certain aspects of the language acquisi tion process that relate to the theoretical claims. As new insights allow us to hypothesize both more specifically and more plausibly about linguistic universals, the actual facts about linguistic develop ment in young children become increasingly relevant as additional data on which to formulate and test new ideas. This book looks closely at a particular set of linguistic structures with respect to both linguistic theory and language development, exploring the relationship between the theoretical claims and the results of a series of language acquisition experiments. Although work of this sort is often called interdisciplinary, the issues addressed are clearly defined, although not all of them are answered. This book should be of particular interest to linguists, and to psychologists concerned with linguistic and cognitive development.

The Self in Transition

8 Language about Me and You : Pronominal Reference and the Emerging Concept of Self Elizabeth Bates People like to talk about people . Most of all , we like to talk about ourselves ( I , we ) in relation to our listener ( you ) and a ...

Author: Dante Cicchetti

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226106624

Category: Psychology

Page: 399

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Twenty-four distinguished behavioral scientists present recent research on the self during the pivotal period of transition from infancy to childhood and place it in historical perspective, citing earlier work of such figures as William James, George Herbert Mead, Sigmund Freud, and Heinz Kohut. Contributors are Elizabeth Bates, Marjorie Beeghly, Barbara Belmont, Leslie Bottomly, Helen K. Buchsbaum, George Butterworth, Vicki Carlson, Dante Cicchetti, James P. Connell, Robert N. Emde, Jerome Kagan, Robert A. LeVine, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Editha Nottelmann, Sandra Pipp, Marian Radke-Yarrow, Catherine E. Snow, L. Alan Sroufe, Gerald Stechler, Sheree L. Toth, Malcolm Watson, and Dennie Palmer Wolf.

Reference

The pronominal reference is infelicitous for reasons that should be apparent. Bush and Blair are evoked from equivalent grammatical positions, and are thus presumably accorded the same degree of salience in the discourse state.

Author: Jeanette K. Gundel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190450250

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 288

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The ability to produce and understand referring expressions is basic to human language use and human cognition. Reference comprises the ability to think of and represent objects (both real and imagined/fictional), to indicate to others which of these objects we are talking about, and to determine what others are talking about when they use a nominal expression. The articles in this volume are concerned with some of the central themes and challenges in research on reference within the cognitive sciences - philosophy (including philosophy of language and mind, logic, and formal semantics), theoretical and computational linguistics, and cognitive psychology. The papers address four basic questions: What is reference? What is the appropriate analysis of different referring forms, such as definite descriptions? How is reference resolved? and How do speaker/writers select appropriate referring forms, such as pronouns vs. full noun phrases, demonstrative vs. personal pronouns, and overt vs. null/zero pronominal forms? Some of the papers assume and build on existing theories, such as Centering Theory and the Givenness Hierarchy framework; others propose their own models of reference understanding or production. The essays examine reference from a number of disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives, informed by different research traditions and employing different methodologies. While the contributors to the volume were primarily trained in one of the four represented disciplines-computer science, linguistics, philosophy and psychology, and use methodologies typical of that discipline, each of them bridges more than one discipline in their methodology and/or their approach.

Grammar Gesture and Meaning in American Sign Language

Meier cites data showing that eye gaze at the addressee occurs not only with second person pronominal reference , but also with first person pronominal reference as well as stretches of discourse that make no reference at all to ...

Author: Scott K. Liddell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521016509

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 384

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Sample Text

Cohesion Coherence and Temporal Reference from an Experimental Corpus Pragmatics Perspective

For example, in case of pronominal anaphorical reference compared to deictic pronominal reference, the sources of information necessary for the saturation process are not the same for the two types of pronominal reference.

Author: Cristina Grisot

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319967523

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 319

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This open access book provides new methodological and theoretical insights into temporal reference and its linguistic expression, from a cross-linguistic experimental corpus pragmatics approach. Verbal tenses, in general, and more specifically the categories of tense, grammatical and lexical aspect are treated as cohesion ties contributing to the temporal coherence of a discourse, as well as to the cognitive temporal coherence of the mental representations built in the language comprehension process. As such, it investigates the phenomenon of temporal reference at the interface between corpus linguistics, theoretical linguistics and pragmatics, experimental pragmatics, psycholinguistics, natural language processing and machine translation.

Information Structure and Reference Tracking in Complex Sentences

If speakers use the subjunctive to signal that the complement denotes an 'active' discourse referent – that is, one with lesser informative value – why not use a pronominal reference such as eso ('that') or even an null-pronominal ...

Author: Rik van Gijn

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027270757

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 409

View: 725

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This volume is dedicated to exploring the crossroads where complex sentences and information management – more specifically information structure and reference tracking – come together. Complex sentences are a highly relevant but understudied domain for studying notions of IS and RT. On the one hand, a complex sentence can be studied as a mini-unit of discourse consisting of two or more elements describing events, situations, or processes, with its own internal information-structural and referential organization. On the other hand, complex sentences can be studied as parts of larger discourse structures, such as narratives or conversations, in terms of how their information-structural characteristics relate to this wider context. The book offers new perspectives for the study of the interaction between complex sentences and information management, and moreover adds typological breadth by focusing on lesser studied languages from several parts of the world.

American Sign Language Units 10 18

That unit introduced ways to refer to people using the indexic ( index finger ) , honorific , or reflexive / emphatic ... As described in Unit 3 , pronominal reference generally involves ' pointing ' to a person or persons with a ...

Author: Dennis Cokely

Publisher: Gallaudet University Press

ISBN: 0930323874

Category: Education

Page: 200

View: 164

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The videocassettes illustrate dialogues for the text it accompanies, and also provides ASL stories, poems and dramatic prose for classroom use. Each dialogue is presented three times to allow the student to "converse with" each signer. Also demonstrates the grammar and structure of sign language. The teacher's text on grammar and culture focuses on the use of three basic types of sentences, four verb inflections, locative relationships and pronouns, etc. by using sign language. The teacher's text on curriculum and methods gives guidelines on teaching American Sign Language and Structured activities for classroom use.

Toward the Image of Tammuz and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture

narrowly applied—to persons as complete entities, to whole persons, not to parts—the ordering affects only infixes in which the primary reference is to the person as a whole, that is, infixes of the form pronominal element plus zero.

Author: Thorkild Jacobsen

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 9781556359521

Category: Religion

Page: 520

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In this volume, William L. Moran has collected seventeen of Jacobsen's widely scattered essays. Dealing with religion, history, culture, government, economics, and grammar, these pieces are representative of all aspects of Jacobsen's work, but stress his studies in history and religion, the fields in which he made his most important contributions to our knowledge of Mesopotamian culture and the origins of Western civilization. Moran has also included a bibliography of and a lexical index to Jacobsen's writings.

Language Development In Exceptional Circumstances

In contrast, we fully expected that, because of their transparent nature, the learning of the sign equivalents of pronominal reference in ASL would be early and error-free ('trivial' is the way we expressed it).

Author: Dorothy Bishop

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781135064617

Category: Psychology

Page: 280

View: 236

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Ever since attempts were made to describe and explain normal language development, references to exceptional circumstances have been made. Variations in the conditions under which language is acquired can be regarded as natural experiments, which would not be feasible or ethical under normal circumstances. This can throw light on such questions as: *What language input is necessary for the child to learn language? *What is the relationship between cognition and language? *How independent are different components of language function? *Are there critical periods for language development? *Can we specify necessary and sufficient conditions for language impairment? This book covers a range of exceptional circumstances including: extreme deprivation, twinship, visual and auditory impairments, autism and focal brain damage? Written in a jargon-free style, and including a glossary of linguistic and medical terminology, the book assumes little specialist knowledge. This text is suitable for both students and practitioners in the fields of psycholinguistics, developmental and educational psychology, speech pathology, paediatrics and special education.

Prague Studies in English

Pronominal reference to the main participants was not found in all the articles serving as sources. The Times articles about Catherine Zeta Jones and Michael Douglas contained no instances of pronominal reference, and neither did the ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015067531833

Category: English philology

Page:

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