Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases

This guide explains the latest engineering and administrative options available for avoiding and controlling accidents, including how to set up reliable systems for preventing and mitigating accidental releases as well as how to evaluate ...

Author: Vasilis M. Fthenakis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471284084

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 548

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Today's complex industrial plants can pose many risks of fire, explosions, and other hazardous incidents if proper safety mechanisms are not in place. Of particular concern are accidental gaseous emissions that jeopardize the health of workers and the facility itself. This guide explains the latest engineering and administrative options available for avoiding and controlling accidents, including how to set up reliable systems for preventing and mitigating accidental releases as well as how to evaluate the performance of these systems.

Lees Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control Frank Lees Sam Mannan ... EPA's Accidental Release Information Program (ARIP) Database Covered Universe Facilities were asked by EPA to provide information to the ARIP database if the ...

Author: Sam Mannan

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780750675550

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 3680

View: 658

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Over the last three decades the process industries have grown very rapidly, with corresponding increases in the quantities of hazardous materials in process, storage or transport. Plants have become larger and are often situated in or close to densely populated areas. Increased hazard of loss of life or property is continually highlighted with incidents such as Flixborough, Bhopal, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, the Phillips 66 incident, and Piper Alpha to name but a few. The field of Loss Prevention is, and continues to, be of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, because of the trend for processing plants to become larger and often be situated in or close to densely populated areas, thus increasing the hazard of loss of life or property. This book is a detailed guidebook to defending against these, and many other, hazards. It could without exaggeration be referred to as the "bible" for the process industries. This is THE standard reference work for chemical and process engineering safety professionals. For years, it has been the most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment, regulations and laws covering the field of process safety. An entire library of alternative books (and cross-referencing systems) would be needed to replace or improve upon it, but everything of importance to safety professionals, engineers and managers can be found in this all-encompassing reference instead. Frank Lees' world renowned work has been fully revised and expanded by a team of leading chemical and process engineers working under the guidance of one of the world's chief experts in this field. Sam Mannan is professor of chemical engineering at Texas A&M University, and heads the Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center at Texas A&M. He received his MS and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Oklahoma, and joined the chemical engineering department at Texas A&M University as a professor in 1997. He has over 20 years of experience as an engineer, working both in industry and academia New detail is added to chapters on fire safety, engineering, explosion hazards, analysis and suppression, and new appendices feature more recent disasters. The many thousands of references have been updated along with standards and codes of practice issued by authorities in the US, UK/Europe and internationally. In addition to all this, more regulatory relevance and case studies have been included in this edition. Written in a clear and concise style, Loss Prevention in the Process Industries covers traditional areas of personal safety as well as the more technological aspects and thus provides balanced and in-depth coverage of the whole field of safety and loss prevention. - A must-have standard reference for chemical and process engineering safety professionals - The most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment and laws that pertain to process safety - Only single work to provide everything; principles, practice, codes, standards, data and references needed by those practicing in the field

A Review of Accidents Prevention and Mitigation Options Related to Hazardous Gases

Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:727219990

Category:

Page: 17

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Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud

Melhem, G. A., “Hazard reduction benefits from reduced storage temperature of pressurized liquids,” in (V. Fthenakis, Ed), Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, pp. 422—428.

Author: John L. Woodward

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470935354

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 289

View: 555

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This CCPS Concept book shows designers and operators of chemical facilities how to realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of accidentally released material that is capable of igniting. It provides information on industry experience with flammable vapor clouds, basic concepts of fires and explosions, and an overview of related computer programs.

Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass

11.8 / 250 , International Association of Oil & Gas Producers , October , 1996 . ... Fthenakis , V. , Ed . , " Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases , " Van Nostrand Reinhold , New York , 1993 .

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118230534

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 264

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Complemented by an estimating tool spreadsheet based on a fixed set of chemicals to assist in risk estimations, Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass converts a "best guess" to a calculated value based on available information and current technology. The text documents and explains the science and background of the technology-based approach. The tool, when populated with appropriate data, yields an estimate of the probability that a defined release of a flammable material will ignite if exposed to an ignition source. This information can be used to make risk assessments with a higher degree of confidence than estimates made before and it provides valuable information for use in the development of a facility's Emergency Response Plan.

Hazards XV

Englund, S., 1993, Process and design options for inherently safer plants, in Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases, edited by Fthenakis, V. M., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, Chapter 2. 42.

Author: Institution of Chemical Engineers (Great Britain). North Western Branch

Publisher: IChemE

ISBN: 9780852954294

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 654

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Experts from the fields of process safety and environmental protection discuss their work.

Inherently Safer Chemical Processes

Control of liquefied toxic gas releases. In V. M. Fthenakis Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases (pp. 438-447). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Sorensen, F. and Petersen, H.J.S. (1992).

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470925183

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 541

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Inherently Safer Chemical Processes presents a holistic approach to making the development, manufacture, and use of chemicals safer. It discusses strategies for substituting more benign chemicals at the development stage, minimizing risk in the transportation of chemicals, using safer processing methods at the manufacturing stage, and decommissioning a manufacturing plant. Since the publication of the original concept book in 1996, there have been many developments on the concept of inherent safety. This new edition provides the latest knowledge so that engineers can derive maximum benefit from inherent safety.

Risk Assessment in the Process Industries

Woodward , J.L. , 1993 , Discharge rates through holes in process vessels and piping in Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases ( Van Nostrand Reinhold ) . 2 . Chisholm , D. , 1983 , Two - Phase Flow in ...

Author: International Study Group on Risk Analysis

Publisher: IChemE

ISBN: 0852953232

Category: Chemical engineering

Page: 138

View: 905

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In this updated and amplified edition, Dr Pitblado answers the crucial questions of risk analysis: what can go wrong?; what are the effects and consequences?; and how often will it happen'.

Guidelines for Inherently Safer Chemical Processes

Is your plant inherently safer. Hydrocarbon Processing, 77-82. Somerville, R. L. (1993). Control of liquefied toxic gas releases. In V. M. Fthenakis Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases (pp.

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119529224

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 528

View: 883

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Since the publication of the second edition several United States jurisdictions have mandated consideration of inherently safer design for certain facilities. Notable examples are the inherently safer technology (IST) review requirement in the New Jersey Toxic Chemical Prevention Act (TCPA), and the Inherently Safer Systems Analysis (ISSA) required by the Contra Costa County (California) Industrial Safety Ordinance. More recently, similar requirements have been proposed at the U.S. Federal level in the pending EPA Risk Management Plan (RMP) revisions. Since the concept of inherently safer design applies globally, with its origins in the United Kingdom, the book will apply globally. The new edition builds on the same philosophy as the first two editions, but further clarifies the concept with recent research, practitioner observations, added examples and industry methods, and discussions of security and regulatory issues. Inherently Safer Chemical Processes presents a holistic approach to making the development, manufacture, and use of chemicals safer. The main goal of this book is to help guide the future state of chemical process evolution by illustrating and emphasizing the merits of integrating inherently safer design process-related research, development, and design into a comprehensive process that balances safety, capital, and environmental concerns throughout the life cycle of the process. It discusses strategies of how to: substitute more benign chemicals at the development stage, minimize risk in the transportation of chemicals, use safer processing methods at the manufacturing stage, and decommission a manufacturing plant so that what is left behind does not endanger the public or environment.

Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology

... W (1993) Explosions course: prevention, protection. Springer, Berlin Bretherick L (1995) Handbook of reactive chemical hazards, 5th edn. ... In: Fthenakis VM (ed) Prevention and control of accidental releases of hazardous gases.

Author: James A. Kent

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461442592

Category: Science

Page: 1562

View: 628

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Substantially revising and updating the classic reference in the field, this handbook offers a valuable overview and myriad details on current chemical processes, products, and practices. No other source offers as much data on the chemistry, engineering, economics, and infrastructure of the industry. The Handbook serves a spectrum of individuals, from those who are directly involved in the chemical industry to others in related industries and activities. It provides not only the underlying science and technology for important industry sectors, but also broad coverage of critical supporting topics. Industrial processes and products can be much enhanced through observing the tenets and applying the methodologies found in chapters on Green Engineering and Chemistry (specifically, biomass conversion), Practical Catalysis, and Environmental Measurements; as well as expanded treatment of Safety, chemistry plant security, and Emergency Preparedness. Understanding these factors allows them to be part of the total process and helps achieve optimum results in, for example, process development, review, and modification. Important topics in the energy field, namely nuclear, coal, natural gas, and petroleum, are covered in individual chapters. Other new chapters include energy conversion, energy storage, emerging nanoscience and technology. Updated sections include more material on biomass conversion, as well as three chapters covering biotechnology topics, namely, Industrial Biotechnology, Industrial Enzymes, and Industrial Production of Therapeutic Proteins.