Prepositions and Particles in English

Elizabeth M. O'Dowd offers a new, discourse-functional account of the categories "preposition" and "particle" in English.

Author: Elizabeth M. O'Dowd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195354923

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 412


Elizabeth M. O'Dowd offers a new, discourse-functional account of the categories "preposition" and "particle" in English. She explains why certain words have membership in both categories, and solves many intriguing puzzles long associated with the syntax and semantics of these words. Based on linguistic data extracted from a series of actual conversations, O'Dowd provides new insights into how prepositions and particles are used, and how their meanings can change across different discourse contexts over time.

Between Heads and Phrases

This is also the reason why phrasal verbs are difficult to describe. This thesis pursues two aims: first of all, it outlines the interdependency between the semantic and syntax in phrasal verb.

Author: Beate Haba

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783656487784

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 68

View: 525


Magisterarbeit aus dem Jahr 2009 im Fachbereich Englisch - Grammatik, Stil, Arbeitstechnik, Note: 2,0, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Phrasal verbs, generally speaking, consist of verbs and particles which may be an adverb and a preposition to form more or less coherent unit with the verb. From the perspective of a learner of English as a foreign language (EFL), particle verbs are not only an important feature of English grammar whose degree of mastery reveals the command of lexicon and style. But, due to their heterogeneity and complexity, they are difficult to master and provide a vast potential for mistakes but they are also very complex and heterogeneous. According to Darwin and Grey (1999:65), many particle verbs have entirely idiomatic meaning although both parts of the construction seem very familiar to the learners. This idiomaticity leads to avoidance or to errors because phrasal verbs constitute “a syntactic [and semantic] oddity in the language” to include the quotation by Darwin and Gray (1999:65). This is also the reason why phrasal verbs are difficult to describe. This thesis pursues two aims: first of all, it outlines the interdependency between the semantic and syntax in phrasal verb. If the particles leave their literal domain, they lose their lexical autonomy as they attach to the verbal head. Literal particles, like prepositions, are syntactically and semantically autonomous. Therefore, they may be treated as a subclass of the category preposition. This is not possible with particles in phrasal verbs which in facts are grammaticalized. This aspect seems to be neglected by the generative grammarians who concentrate on the explanation of particle movement. The questions which are dealt with are, above all, how to account for the particle movement and if the particle moves away from the verbal basis, which constituent then does assign the Case to the object noun phrase. One observes that there have developed different “schools” or direction of accounts, for example Johnson (1991) attempts to explain phrasal verbs in terms of a complex head analysis. He assumes that verb and particle form one lexical item. Kayne (1985) applies Small Clause analysis starting from the assumption that particle verbs and resultative constructions are similar. Particles are heads of a Small Clause with the nominal objects as their subjects. [...]

The Semantics of English Prepositions

Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning, and Cognition Andrea Tyler, Vyvyan Evans. distinctions characterized by prepositions, verb-particle constructions (VPCs or phrasal verbs), adpreps20 (to be defined), and particle prefixes.

Author: Andrea Tyler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139436168

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines


View: 129


Using a cognitive linguistics perspective, this book provides a comprehensive, theoretical analysis of the semantics of English prepositions. All English prepositions originally coded spatial relations between two physical entities; while retaining their original meaning, prepositions have also developed a rich set of non-spatial meanings. In this study, Tyler and Evans argue that all these meanings are systematically grounded in the nature of human spatio-physical experience. The original 'spatial scenes' provide the foundation for the extension of meaning from the spatial to the more abstract. This analysis articulates an alternative methodology that distinguishes between a conventional meaning and an interpretation produced for understanding the preposition in context, as well as establishing which of several competing senses should be taken as the primary sense. Together, the methodology and framework are sufficiently articulated to generate testable predictions and allow the analysis to be applied to additional prepositions.

Prepositions The Ultimate Book Mastering English Prepositions

particles and conjunctions are shown in italics to distinguish them from prepositions. For example, up and down may also be adverbial particles, whereas because is a conjunction. When tied to a context in the middle of aparagraph, ...

Author: Andrew Bruckfield


ISBN: 9781257784899

Category: Reference

Page: 352

View: 323


A guide for developing successful speakers, this book proposes a pedagogical approach to the prepositions of the English language. Designed for all levels of students for easy comprehension and quick learning, over 2000 examples of simple and complex (phrasal) prepositions and prepositional idioms help readers understand and create the intended message. By learning how to correctly link words to their specific meanings, students will be able to build fluency and accuracy while working with creativity and autonomy. Organized by function and subject, with over 400 prepositions, including more than 100 illustrations, this book helps students identify and use context cues through a variety of examples of real-world situations. Whether you are in the English classroom or out in the professional world, Prepositions: The Ultimate Book is an indispensable and comprehensive reference tool for all international learners seeking to communicate more effectively and naturally in the English language.