Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence

Twenty-eight chapters in this book provide updated information on chloroplast development. The dynamic nature of plastid genome expression, regulation, and stability during development have been critically reviewed.

Author: Basanti Biswal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400757240

Category: Science

Page: 685

View: 880

DOWNLOAD →

Chloroplast development is a key feature of leaf developmental program. Recent advances in plant biology reveal that chloroplasts also determine the development, the structure and the physiology of the entire plant. The books, published thus far, have emphasized the biogenesis of the organelle, but not the events associated with the transformation of the mature chloroplast to the gerontoplast during senescence. This book, with 28 chapters, is unique because it describes how the chloroplast matures and how it is subsequently transformed to become the gerontoplast during senescence, a process required for nutrient recycling in plants. This book includes a state-of-the-art survey of the current knowledge on the regulation and the mechanisms of chloroplast development. Some of the chapters critically discuss the signaling process, the expression potential of plastid DNA, the interaction of cellular organelles, and the molecular mechanisms associated with the assembly and the disassembly of organellar complexes and finally the modulation of chloroplast development by environmental signals.

Handbook of Photosynthesis

In Plastid development in leaves during growth and senescence, eds. B. Biswal, K. Krupinska, and U.C. Biswal, 3–16. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, Vol. 36, Dordrecht: Springer. Kusaba, M., T. Maoka, R. Morita, ...

Author: Mohammad Pessarakli

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781315362533

Category: Science

Page: 846

View: 726

DOWNLOAD →

Since the publication of the previous editions of the Handbook of Photosynthesis, many new ideas on photosynthesis have emerged in the past decade that have drawn the attention of experts and researchers on the subject as well as interest from individuals in other disciplines. Updated to include 37 original chapters and making extensive revisions to the chapters that have been retained, 90% of the material in this edition is entirely new. With contributions from over 100 authors from around the globe, this book covers the most recent important research findings. It details all photosynthetic factors and processes under normal and stressful conditions, explores the relationship between photosynthesis and other plant physiological processes, and relates photosynthesis to plant production and crop yields. The third edition also presents an extensive new section on the molecular aspects of photosynthesis, focusing on photosystems, photosynthetic enzymes, and genes. New chapters on photosynthesis in lower and monocellular plants as well as in higher plants are included in this section. The book also addresses growing concerns about excessive levels and high accumulation rates of carbon dioxide due to industrialization. It considers plant species with the most efficient photosynthetic pathways that can help improve the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Completely overhauled from its bestselling predecessors, the Handbook of Photosynthesis, Third Edition provides a nearly entirely new source on the subject that is both comprehensive and timely. It continues to fill the need for an authoritative and exhaustive resource by assembling a global team of experts to provide thorough coverage of the subject while focusing on finding solutions to relevant contemporary issues related to the field.

Plant Proteomic Research

[CrossRef][PubMed] Kato, Y.; Sakamoto, W. Plastid protein degradation during leaf development and senescence: Role of proteases and chaperones. In Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence; Springer: Berlin, Germany, ...

Author: Setsuko Komatsu

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783038424284

Category:

Page: 331

View: 270

DOWNLOAD →

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Plant Proteomic Research" that was published in IJMS

Maintenance of Genome Integrity DNA Damage Sensing Signaling Repair and Replication in Plants

“Development-dependent changes in the amount and structural organization of plastid DNA,” in Plastid Development in Leaves During Growth and Senescence, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, eds B. Biswal, K.Krupinska, ...

Author: Alma Balestrazzi

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889198207

Category:

Page:

View: 727

DOWNLOAD →

Environmental stresses and metabolic by-products can severely affect the integrity of genetic information by inducing DNA damage and impairing genome stability. As a consequence, plant growth and productivity are irreversibly compromised. To overcome genotoxic injury, plants have evolved complex strategies relying on a highly efficient repair machinery that responds to sophisticated damage perception/signaling networks. The DNA damage signaling network contains several key components: DNA damage sensors, signal transducers, mediators, and effectors. Most of these components are common to other eukaryotes but some features are unique to the plant kingdom. ATM and ATR are well-conserved members of PIKK family, which amplify and transduce signals to downstream effectors. ATM primarily responds to DNA double strand breaks while ATR responds to various forms of DNA damage. The signals from the activated transducer kinases are transmitted to the downstream cell-cycle regulators, such as CHK1, CHK2, and p53 in many eukaryotes. However, plants have no homologue of CHK1, CHK2 nor p53. The finding of Arabidopsis transcription factor SOG1 that seems functionally but not structurally similar to p53 suggests that plants have developed unique cell cycle regulation mechanism. The double strand break repair, recombination repair, postreplication repair, and lesion bypass, have been investigated in several plants. The DNA double strand break, a most critical damage for organisms are repaired non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Damage on template DNA makes replication stall, which is processed by translesion synthesis (TLS) or error-free postreplication repair (PPR) pathway. Deletion of the error-prone TLS polymerase reduces mutation frequencies, suggesting PPR maintains the stalled replication fork when TLS is not available. Unveiling the regulation networks among these multiple pathways would be the next challenge to be completed. Some intriguing issues have been disclosed such as the cross-talk between DNA repair, senescence and pathogen response and the involvement of non-coding RNAs in global genome stability. Several studies have highlighted the essential contribution of chromatin remodeling in DNA repair DNA damage sensing, signaling and repair have been investigated in relation to environmental stresses, seed quality issues, mutation breeding in both model and crop plants and all these studies strengthen the idea that components of the plant response to genotoxic stress might represent tools to improve stress tolerance and field performance. This focus issue gives researchers the opportunity to gather and interact by providing Mini-Reviews, Commentaries, Opinions, Original Research and Method articles which describe the most recent advances and future perspectives in the field of DNA damage sensing, signaling and repair in plants. A comprehensive overview of the current progresses dealing with the genotoxic stress response in plants will be provided looking at cellular and molecular level with multidisciplinary approaches. This will hopefully bring together valuable information for both plant biotechnologists and breeders.

Advances in Plastid Biology and Its Applications

“Plastoglobuli, thylakoids, chloroplast structure and development of plastids,” in Plastid Development in Leaves During Growth and Senescence, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, eds B. Biswal, K. Krupinska, U. C. Biswal ...

Author: Niaz Ahmad

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889450480

Category:

Page:

View: 605

DOWNLOAD →

One of the distinguishing features of plants is the presence of membrane-bound organelles called plastids. Starting from proplastids (undifferentiated plastids) they readily develop into specialised types, which are involved in a range of cellular functions such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, biosynthesis of sucrose, starch, chlorophyll, carotenoids, fatty acids, amino acids, and secondary metabolites as well as a number of metabolic reactions like sulphur metabolism, The central role of plastids in many aspects of plant cell biology means an in-depth understanding is key for a holistic view of plant physiology. Despite the vast amount of research, the molecular details of many aspects of plastid biology remains limited. Plastids possess their own high-copy number genome known as the plastome. Manipulation of the plastid genome has been developed as an alternative way to developing transgenic plants for various biotechnological applications. High-copy number of the plastome, site-specific integration of transgenes through homologous recombination, and potential to express proteins at high levels (>70% of total soluble proteins has been reported in some cases) are some of the technologies being developed. Additionally, plastids are inherited maternally, providing a natural gene containment system, and do not follow Mendelian laws of inheritance, allowing each individual member of the progeny of a transplastomic line to uniformly express transgene(s). Both algal and higher plant chloroplast transformation has been demonstrated, and with the ability to be propagated either in bioreactors or in the field, both systems are well suited for scale up of production. The manipulation of chloroplast genes is also essential for many approaches that attempt to increase biomass accumulation or re-routing metabolic pathways for biofortification, food and fuel production. This includes metabolic engineering for lipid production, adapting the light harvesting apparatus to improve solar conversion efficiencies and engineering means of suppressing photorespiration in crop species, which range from the introduction of artificial carbon concentrating mechanisms, or those pre-existing elsewhere in nature, to bypassing ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase entirely. The purpose of this eBook is to provide a compilation of the latest research on various aspects of plastid biology including basic biology, biopharming, metabolic engineering, bio-fortification, stress physiology, and biofuel production.

Plant ABC Transporters

In: Biswal B, Krupinska K, Biswal UC (eds) Plastid development in leaves during growth and senescence, vol 36, Advances in photosynthesis and respiration. Springer, Netherlands, pp 155–167. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5724-0_8 Arabidopsis ...

Author: Markus Geisler

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319065113

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 996

DOWNLOAD →

This book is devoted to the fascinating superfamily of plant ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their variety of transported substrates. It highlights their exciting biological functions, covering aspects ranging from cellular detoxification, through development, to symbiosis and defense. Moreover, it also includes a number of chapters that center on ABC transporters from non-Arabidopsis species. ABC proteins are ubiquitous, membrane-intrinsic transporters that catalyze the primary (ATP-dependent) movement of their substrates through biological membranes. Initially identified as an essential aspect of a vacuolar detoxification process, genetic work in the last decade has revealed an unexpectedly diverse variety of ABC transporter substrates, which include not only xenobiotic conjugates, but also heavy metals, lipids, terpenoids, lignols, alkaloids and organic acids. The discovery that members of the ABCB and ABCG family are involved in the movement of phytohormones has further sparked their exploration and provided a new understanding of the whole family. Accordingly, the trafficking, regulation and structure-function of ABCB-type auxin transporters are especially emphasized in this book.

The Proteins of Plastid Nucleoids Structure Function and Regulation

Changes in distribution of nucleoids in developing and dividing chloroplast and etioplasts of Avena sativa. ... and structural organization of plastid DNA,” in Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence, eds B. Biswal, ...

Author: Thomas Pfannschmidt

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889199273

Category:

Page:

View: 286

DOWNLOAD →

Plastids are plant cell-specific organelles of endosymbiotic origin that contain their own genome, the so-called plastome. Its proper expression is essential for faithful chloroplast biogenesis during seedling development and for the establishment of photosynthetic and other biosynthetic functions in the organelle. The structural organisation, replication and expression of this plastid genome, thus, has been studied for many years, but many essential steps are still not understood. Especially, the structural and functional involvement of various regulatory proteins in these processes is still a matter of research. Studies from the last two decades demonstrated that a plethora of proteins act as specific regulators during replication, transcription, post-transcription, translation and post-translation accommodating a proper inheritance and expression of the plastome. Their number exceeds by far the number of the genes encoded by the plastome suggesting that a strong evolutionary pressure is maintaining the plastome in its present stage. The plastome gene organisation in vascular plants was found to be highly conserved, while algae exhibit a certain flexibility in gene number and organisation. These regulatory proteins are, therefore, an important determinant for the high degree of conservation in plant plastomes. A deeper understanding of individual roles and functions of such proteins would improve largely our understanding of plastid biogenesis and function, a knowledge that will be essential in the development of more efficient and productive plants for agriculture. The latter represents a major socio-economic need of fast growing mankind that asks for increased supply of food, fibres and biofuels in the coming decades despite the threats exerted by global change and fast spreading urbanisation.

The Leaf A Platform for Performing Photosynthesis

... springer.com/life+sciences/plant+sciences/ book/978-94-007-6987-8] • Volume 36 (2013) Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence, edited by Basanti Biswal, Karin Krupinska, and Udaya Biswal, from India and Germany.

Author: William W. Adams III

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319935942

Category: Science

Page: 575

View: 404

DOWNLOAD →

The leaf is an organ optimized for capturing sunlight and safely using that energy through the process of photosynthesis to drive the productivity of the plant and, through the position of plants as primary producers, that of Earth’s biosphere. It is an exquisite organ composed of multiple tissues, each with unique functions, working synergistically to: (1) deliver water, nutrients, signals, and sometimes energy-rich carbon compounds throughout the leaf (xylem); (2) deliver energy-rich carbon molecules and signals within the leaf during its development and then from the leaf to the plant once the leaf has matured (phloem); (3) regulate exchange of gasses between the leaf and the atmosphere (epidermis and stomata); (4) modulate the radiation that penetrates into the leaf tissues (trichomes, the cuticle, and its underlying epidermis); (5) harvest the energy of visible sunlight to transform water and carbon dioxide into energy-rich sugars or sugar alcohols for export to the rest of the plant (palisade and spongy mesophyll); and (6) store sugars and/or starch during the day to feed the plant during the night and/or acids during the night to support light-driven photosynthesis during the day (palisade and spongy mesophyll). Various regulatory controls that have been shaped through the evolutionary history of each plant species result in an incredible diversity of leaf form across the plant kingdom. Genetic programming is also flexible in allowing acclimatory phenotypic adjustments that optimize leaf functioning in response to a particular set of environmental conditions and biotic influences experienced by the plant. Moreover, leaves and the primary processes carried out by the leaf respond to changes in their environment, and the status of the plant, through multiple regulatory networks over time scales ranging from seconds to seasons. This book brings together the findings from laboratories at the forefront of research into various aspects of leaf function, with particular emphasis on the relationship to photosynthesis.

Metabolism Structure and Function of Plant Tetrapyrroles Introduction Microbial and Eukaryotic Chlorophyll Synthesis and Catabolism

Chlorophyllase and peroxidase activity during degreening of maturing canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea) seed. Physiologia Plantarum, 97 ... Plastid development in leaves during growth and senescence (pp. 3–16).

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780081027530

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 102

DOWNLOAD →

Metabolism, Structure and Function of Plant Tetrapyrroles, Volume 90, the latest release in the Advances in Botanical Research series is a compilation of the current state-of-the-art on the topic. Chapters in this new release cover Tetrapyrrole Pigments of Photosynthetic Antennae and Reaction Centers of Higher Plants: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Functions, Molecular Mechanism of Antenna Regulation, Applications, Chlorophyll c: Synthesis, Occurrence, Light-Harvesting, Absorbance, Excitation Properties, Pigment Organization in Chlorophyll-Binding Proteins (FCP), Chlorophyll d and f: Synthesis, Occurrence, Light-harvesting, Absorbance, Excitation Properties, Pigment Organization in Chlorophyll-Binding Protein Complexes, Analysis of Chlorophyll, Precursors and Derivatives by New High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, and much more. Presents the latest release in the Advances in Botanical Research series Provides an Ideal resource for post-graduates and researchers in the plant sciences, including botany, plant biochemistry, plant pathology and plant physiology Contains contributions from internationally recognized authorities in their respective fields