Piracy in Somalia

With all the focus on piracy and the 'lure of easy money,' it is all but forgotten that
the majority of Somali fishermen do ... to take over NATO's escort of WFP-
contracted cargo vessels and to fight piracy in Somalia's territorial waters.18 In
2014, ...

Author: Awet Tewelde Weldemichael

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108496964

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

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Following six years of extensive fieldwork, Weldemichael examines the international causes, internal dynamics, and domestic consequences of piracy in Somalia.

Turning the Tide on Piracy Building Somalia s Future

We asked about the effect of long sentences in Somalia on the pirates . The
Seychelles Foreign Minister thought that it sent a clear message to pirates that
piracy did not pay.9 Dr Willett told us that some estimates of 2000 pirates
awaiting trial ...

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: European Union Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 0108476146

Category: Political Science

Page: 35

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Operation Atalanta has made clear progress in reducing the number of ships pirated, with only 8 vessels and 215 hostages held in June 2012 compared to 23 vessels and 501 hostages in the same month in 2011. Nonetheless the report makes clear that it is vital this effort is extended beyond 2014 to show the EU will not walk away from confronting piracy in the Indian Ocean. Otherwise organisations and individuals that organise piracy will simply wait out the operation before returning to their previous activities. The report welcomes the increase in trials and imprisonment of pirates and particularly praises the role played by the Seychelles. However, the Committee do express concerns about the policy of transferring sentenced pirates back to Somalia for imprisonment and suggest there is a risk of breakouts. They call on the EU and UN to work together to monitor pirate prisons. They also say efforts should be made to ensure the imprisonment includes some efforts at rehabilitation as well as punishment, particularly for young pirates. Other findings in the report include: Somali piracy will never be completely eradicated until the root causes of the problems in the country are addressed through aid focused on providing alternative livelihoods for the Somali people to reduce the incentives to engage in piracy; the Committee now support the use of armed guards on ships; a welcome degree of international cooperation in tackling Somali piracy with national navies of Russia, China and India all playing a role.

Piracy off the coast of Somalia

38 Piracy off the coast of Somalia has escalated over the last four years and is a
major concern for the UK . The threat is not primarily to UK ships as very few have
been captured . Rather , the threat is to the UK's economy and security . Piracy ...

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 0215040236

Category: Political Science

Page: 210

View: 516

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Somali piracy poses a threat to the UK's national interests as well as global trading routes and international security. The costs of allowing piracy to proliferate are high. The British shipping industry is worth £10.7 billion to the UK's GDP, and the costs of security, insurance, re-routing have vastly increased the costs of doing business. Over $300 million has been paid in ransoms to Somali pirates over the past four years, and thousands of seafarers have been held hostage, some of whom have been subject to cruel treatment and even torture. Self-defence measures, multi-national naval operations and prosecutions have begun to take effect, but have not yet contained the problem. The major international conference on Somalia in February 2012 must produce results. Although private armed guards will be permitted on UK shipping, the Government's guidance on the use of force, particularly lethal force, is very limited and there is little to help a ship's master make a judgement on where force can be used. The Committee also expresses surprise that so little is known about what happens to ransom money. The solution lies in establishing order on land, ending impunity for piracy crimes and offering alternatives. However, the report warns against international claims to deliver a solution in Somalia, and urges the Government to develop its engagement with and support for Somali civil society organisations and local projects. The FCO should also review its communication and other procedures to support family members of British hostages held abroad.

Somalia State Collapse Terrorism and Piracy

piracy. in. context. J. Peter Pham National Committee on American Foreign Policy
, New York, USA While it is not necessarily the gravest threat to international
security emanating from Somalia, maritime piracy has received the most attention
 ...

Author: Brian J. Hesse

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317985921

Category: Political Science

Page: 120

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The situation in Somalia today embodies some of the most pressing issues in international relations. How should the international community deal with the collapsed state that is Somalia? From the presence of al-Qaeda operatives to pirates, to what extent is Somalia a threat to global peace and commerce? Which aspects of Somalia's economic, social and political landscape can be considered successful, and how do these ‘success stories’ reflect some of the more problematic issues the country faces? This book sheds light on all of these topics and more. The book is written to appeal to a wide audience, from specialists in international security, development and/or humanitarian issues, to students and casual readers. Its six contributing authors, with their focus on current events mixed with historical perspective, ensure readers get varying views of what is happening today in the Horn of Africa. The book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Contemporary African Studies.

Somalia Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace

Piracy. in. the. Horn. of. Africa9. Overview In February 2010, a Libyan-owned
cargo ship, reportedly flying a North Korean ... passed a resolution authorizing
the use of “all necessary measures” by foreign military forces to stop piracy in
Somalia.

Author:

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9781437931495

Category:

Page:

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The African State in a Changing Global Context

Somalia. Zoltán. Glück. “Piracy is just a symptom overshadowing the real disease
: the collapse of the state and ... of illness when applied to society, those of
disease and decay found in descriptions of piracy in Somalia are profoundly
political.

Author: István Tarrósy

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 9783643110602

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

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During the first 25 years of independence, the African state was largely driven from within by the ambition to establish political order in a world where national sovereignty over issues of development was not in question. The next 25 years have been characterized by a different dynamic: external influences have become increasingly important in shaping the behavior of the state and its direction. The main theme of this volume is that more is at stake today than in the past: not only control of the state, but also the nature of the regime. (Series: Afrikanische Studien/African Studies - Vol. 42)

The Law and Practice of Piracy at Sea

of 127 hostages reported for Somalia piracy.4 Piracy worldwide has been
estimated to cost the international economy $7–12 billion per year, with a large
chunk of the costs from the piracy incidents in the East African region, and as
such it is ...

Author: Panos Koutrakos

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781782252696

Category: Law

Page: 376

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This collection of essays provides a comprehensive assessment of the legal and policy approaches to maritime counter-piracy adopted by the EU and other international actors over the last few years. As the financial cost of Somali piracy for the maritime industry and the world economy as a whole was estimated to have reached $18 billion by 2010, the phenomenon of piracy at sea has steadily grown in significance and has recently attracted the attention of international policy makers. Moreover, piracy is intrinsically linked to state failure and other pathologies bred by it, such as organised crime and terrorism. This book adopts a holistic approach to the topic, examining approaches to piracy as these emerge in different geographical areas, as well as tackling the central issues which counter-piracy raises in terms of the most topical aspects of international law (international humanitarian law and armed conflict, piracy and terrorism, use of force). It also focuses on the approach of the EU, placing counter-piracy in its broader legal context. Providing a detailed doctrinal exploration of the issues which counter-piracy raises, it emphasises and draws upon the insights of the practice of counter-piracy by bringing together academic lawyers and the legal advisers of the main actors in the area (EU, US, NATO, UK). The book raises fundamental questions about the law and practice of international law: are the rules of the international law of the sea on piracy still relevant? To what extent has the shared interest of international actors in tackling piracy given rise to common practices? Do the interactions among the actors examined in the book suggest fragmentation or unity of the international legal order? Is it premature to view these interactions as signalling the gradual emergence of global law in the area? This common analytical frame of reference is underlined by the concluding part, which draws these threads together. The book will be of interest to legal scholars, political scientists and international relations theorists, as well as decision-makers and students of law, politics and international relations.

Somali Piracy and Terrorism in the Horn of Africa

In recent years, we have also seen a significant rise in piracy off the coast of
Somalia, which has led to the hijacking of arms shipments, oil tankers, and food
aid shipments. This piracy has had an impact on the entire world, leading to
hostages ...

Author: Christopher L. Daniels

Publisher: Scarecrow Press

ISBN: 9780810883116

Category: Political Science

Page: 254

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The first contribution to Global Flashpoints: A Scarecrow Press Series, Christopher Daniels’ Somali Piracy and Terrorism in the Horn of Africa provides readers with a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the spate of piracy and terrorism plaguing the waters of Somalia and the global threat posed by this activity. Contesting the commonly held perception that the piracy and terrorism occurring in Somalia are two separate and unrelated activities, Daniels reveals how the collapse of the Somali state and the chaos that has ensued created the environment for piracy and terrorism to flourish in combination. He also notes how the failure to restore a functioning central government has allowed both to become dangerous threats not only to the people of Somalia but the entire world. Underscoring Somalia’s dire state, Somali Piracy and Terrorism in the Horn of Africa lays out for readers such significant topics as the reasons behind the collapse of the Somali state and the secession of Somaliland, Puntland, and Jubaland; the rise of internationally-linked terrorist groups, such as Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam; and the dramatic spike in pirate attacks off the Somali coast. Daniels concludes by critiquing the methods that have been used to help alleviate these global security challenges and gives policy recommendations for future consideration. Designed to enhance readers’ grasp of this global flashpoint, this volume includes a timeline, a glossary of terms, biographical entries on key individual and institutional actors in this conflict, and selected primary sources. It is the ideal introduction to students and scholars of international relations, African history and politics, terrorism, and maritime studies.

Modern Piracy

... until the massive development of their activities off the coasts of Somalia, which
started around 2000 and are still continuing.1 Contemporary piracy is not limited
to Somalia. Recently, for instance, piracy in the 1 Interesting legal and factual ...

Author: Douglas Guilfoyle

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781849804936

Category: Law

Page: 368

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ÔA number of books dealing with piracy have been published in recent years. This book stands out by the breadth of its coverage, which, unusually and much to be welcomed, includes detailed consideration of both public and private law. The book is also notable for the quality and range of expertise of its contributors, who are not only leading experts in the field but a mixture of academic and practising lawyers.Õ Ð Robin Churchill, The University of Dundee, UK ÔPiracy once again is posing serious threats to international trade, navigation and, of course, to the safety of seafarers. This collection of outstanding essays by outstanding scholars and practitioners examines the background to the re-emergence of piracy in South Asia, East and West Africa and explores the complex legal and practical challenges which crafting effective responses has presented. It is, quite simply, essential reading for anyone who is seriously interested in understanding and responding to one of the most pressing problems of our time.Õ Ð Malcolm Evans, University of Bristol, UK Modern Piracy is the first book to survey the law of maritime piracy from both public law and commercial law perspectives, as well as providing a contextual overview of piracy in major hotspots. Topics covered include issues of international law, law-enforcement cooperation, private armed security, ransoms, insurance and carriage of goods by sea. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the range of legal issues presented by the modern piracy menace and will be of interest to scholars and practitioners alike. Benefiting from a wide range of international expertise, this book will be of interest to public international law academics, government legal counsel, maritime commercial law practitioners, international relations academics as well as anyone interested in transnational organised crime.

Political Geographies of Piracy

... of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gilmer, Brittany. Political
geographies of piracy : constructing threats and containing bodies in Somalia /by
Brittany Gilmer. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. (
hardback : alk.

Author: B. VandeBerg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137434234

Category: Social Science

Page: 196

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This book examines the increasing role of development organizations in securitization processes and argues that the new security-development counter piracy framework is (re)shaping political geographies of piracy by promoting disciplinary strategies aimed at the prevention and containment of gendered and racialized actions and bodies in Somalia.

The International Response to Somali Piracy

Maritime terrorism—Somalia. 2. PiracySomalia. 3. Hijacking of ships—Somalia.
4. Maritime terrorism—Somalia—Prevention. 5. PiracySomalia—Prevention. 6.
Hijacking of ships—Somalia—Prevention. 7. World politics—21st century.

Author: Bibi van Ginkel

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004190030

Category: Law

Page: 222

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The recent surge in piracy attacks off the coast of Somalia has triggered an international response which is unprecedented in terms of the number of actors involved. The International Response to Somali Piracy presents a comprehensive treatment of the international response to Somali piracy, exploring current initiatives to counter the piracy threat, both operationally and legally. Moreover, the book analyzes the regional and broader international context within which these initiatives are taken, and identifies the challenges and opportunities for international cooperation on fighting piracy at sea. This volume brings together experts from a great variety of different backgrounds and disciplines.

Piracy at Sea

... ever attacks piracy ships, out of fear of retribution against hostages on board (
CNN 2011). All in all, national advantage emerges from pressure, challenge and
adversity, rarely from an easy life. The low average life expectancy in Somalia is
 ...

Author: Maximo Q. Mejia, Jr.

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642396205

Category: Law

Page: 310

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​Over more than three decades starting in the 1990s, thousands of robberies, acts of piracy, and other violent attacks against merchant vessels have been reported in many of the world’s waters. The grave danger of piracy poses a direct threat not only to the security and efficiency of marine transportation, but more seriously, to the lives of the men and woman carrying out this important function. This book collates ideas brought up by seafarers, shipowners, industry practitioners, government officials, academics, and researchers exchanged views and insights on the complex web of underlying factors behind the phenomenon of piracy. Piracy at Sea brings together a wide spectrum of maritime stakeholders, who present different aspects of the problem in an open manner and share their thoughts on how to deal with a truly complex situation. It encapsulates this collective wisdom in a publication that can serve as an easy reference for practitioners as well as researchers, and hopefully contribute to more concrete action.​

Popular Culture Piracy and Outlaw Pedagogy

The vision constructed out of seventeenth century struggles between power and
resistance allows for an exploration into contemporary revisions provoked by the
resurgence of piracy off the coast of Somalia. These revisions are demonstrative
 ...

Author: Elizabeth Alford Pollock

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789462096134

Category: Education

Page: 120

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Popular Culture, Piracy, and Outlaw Pedagogy explores the relationship between power and resistance by critiquing the popular cultural image of the pirate represented in Pirates of the Caribbean. Of particular interest is the reliance on modernism’s binary good/evil, Sparrow/Jones, how the films’ distinguish the two concepts/characters via corruption, and what we may learn from this structure which I argue supports neoliberal ideologies of indifference towards the piratical Other. What became evident in my research is how the erasure of corruption via imperial and colonial codifications within seventeenth century systems of culture, class hierarchies, and language succeeded in its re-presentation of the pirate and members of a colonized India as corrupt individuals with empire emerging from the struggle as exempt from that corruption. This erasure is evidenced in Western portrayals of Somali pirates as corrupt Beings without any acknowledgement of transnational corporations’ role in provoking pirate resurgence in that region. This forces one to re-examine who the pirate is in this situation. Erasure is also evidenced in current interpretations of both Bush’s No Child Left Behind and Obama’s Race to the Top initiative. While NCLB created conditions through which corruption occurred, I demonstrate how Race to the Top erases that corruption from the institution of education by placing it solely into the hands of teachers, thus providing the institution a “free pass” to engage in any behavior it deems fit. What pirates teach us, then, are potential ways to thwart the erasure process by engaging a pedagogy of passion, purpose, radical love and loyalty to the people involved in the educational process.

Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea

The Legal Framework for Counter-Piracy Operations in Somalia and the Gulf of
Aden Robin Geiss, Anna Petrig ... Since 2008, the international community has
witnessed a sharp increase in pirate activities off the coast of Somalia, in the Gulf
of ...

Author: Robin Geiss

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199609529

Category: History

Page: 321

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Piracy is no longer an archaic problem. This analysis of the legal issues surrounding the repression of piracy and armed robbery at sea assesses whether the existing legal regime can effectively counter piracy in the modern age.

Maritime Piracy and Its Control An Economic Analysis

Somalia as a failed state is a case in point. Fifth, and perhaps most significantly,
rewards garnered from piracy are enormous relative to average income per
worker in Somalia. For example, Axe (2009) reports that [a]ccording to some ...

Author: C. Hallwood

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137461506

Category: Political Science

Page: 135

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Maritime Piracy and its Control develops an economic approach to the problem of modern-day maritime piracy with the goal of assessing the effectiveness of remedies aimed at reducing the incidence of piracy.

Globalizing Somalia

Somalia in this sense is merely the latest chapter in Japan's long-running
agonizing over its global security role. This chapter will then turn to examine how
Japan's response to piracy off Somalia reflects a microcosm of the emerging ...

Author: Emma Leonard

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 9781780935829

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

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This collection of essays demonstrates how chronic state failure and the inability of the international community to provide a solution to the conflict in Somalia has had transnational repercussions. Following the failed humanitarian mission in 1992-93, most countries refrained from any direct involvement in Somalia, but this changed in the 2000s with the growth of piracy and links to international terrorist organizations. The deterritorialization of the conflict quickly became apparent as it became transnational in nature. In part because of it lacked a government and was unable to work with the international community, Somalia came to be seen as a "testing-ground" by many international actors. Globalizing Somalia demonstrates how China, Japan, and the EU, among others, have all used the conflict in Somalia to project power, test the bounds of the national constitution, and test their own military capabilities. Contributed by international scholars and experts, the work examines the impact of globalization on the internal and external dynamics of the conflict, arguing that it is no longer geographically contained. By bringing together the many actors and issues involved, the book fills a gap in the literature as one of the most complete works on the conflict in Somalia to date. It will be an essential text to any student interested in Somalia and the horn of Africa, as well as in terrorism, and conflict processes.

Kidnapping and Abduction

armed robberies, home invasions, and carjackings is particularly high in Darfur,
as the government has limited capacity to deter crime in that region.26 Somalia
Piracy in Somalia is well-known, with captured tankers and their crew being held
 ...

Author: Brian John Heard

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482228151

Category: Computers

Page: 222

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Terrorist groups and organized crime cartels pose an increasing threat of kidnapping throughout many regions in the word. At the same time, international travel has become more commonplace for both business and leisure purposes. Kidnapping and Abduction: Minimizing the Threat and Lessons in Survival provides a practical guide on the precautions travelers can take to avoid being kidnapped or derail a kidnapping attempt in progress. In the event this cannot be avoided, the book supplies advice on how to ensure survival during captivity. Readers will learn: The basic elements of kidnapping and abduction The motivations and mechanisms of kidnappers The hotspots where kidnapping/hostage taking is prevalent Vehicles best suited for avoidance of kidnap threat and proposals for up-armoring an existing vehicle How to recognize immediate threats and precautions to be taken in assessing threat level The types of weapons most favored by kidnappers and their threat level Available bullet-resistant materials and their use in stab- and bullet-resistant vests Resistance methodologies and weapons for self-defense Legislation in various countries pertaining to the carrying of weapons How to survive long-term abduction if kidnapped How to best assist the authorities once released Essential reading for anyone living, doing business, or traveling abroad or at sea, this practical handbook reveals tactics that best enable those vulnerable to protect against an attack—or in the worse-case scenario, increase their chances for survival.

Annual Review of United Nations Affairs

Encourages all States and regional organizations fighting piracy and armed
robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia to establish an international cooperation
mechanism to act as a common point of contact between and among states,
regional ...

Author: Joachim Muller

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780195398007

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

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Since the publication of its first edition in 1950, the Annual Review of United Nations Affairs has stood as the authoritative resource for scholars, students, and practitioners researching the latest developments of that august body. From the insightful introduction, prepared each year by a distinguished expert on UN affairs, to the full-text presentation of reports and resolutions and the helpful subject index, ARUNA provides a practical tour of each year's U.N. actions and debates. Theexpert selection of documents by Joachim Muller and Karl Sauvant and the topic-based organization of those documents make any researcher's task much easier than the vast searching, sorting, and pruning required by the U.N.'s website. The series' topic-based organization of the materials and subject index lend invaluable guidance to all researchers. ARUNA presents a comprehensive documentation of the work of the UN on an annual basis, starting in September of each year with the beginning of the regular sessions of the General Assembly. Coverage of the UN's key organs is provided, including the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat. In addition, selected reports of intergovernmental bodies and expert groups are included. Solely official UN documentation is used. ARUNA occupies a special place in the publications on the work of the UN - it allows readers to obtain an overview ofthe principal developments in its key organs. This makes it an important reference source for policy-makers and academic researchers. The highlight of this year's edition is the introductory essay written by the highly esteemed Jose Antonio Ocampo, who is Professor of Professional Practice in International and Public Affairs, Director of the Program in Economic and Political Development at the School of International and Public Affairs, and Fellow of the Committee on Global Thought, ColumbiaUniversity. Professor Ocampo previously held the positions of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations for Economic and Social Affairs, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, and Minister of Finance of Colombia. In 2009, he was a member of the Commission of Experts of the President of the United Nations General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System. Professor Ocampo is also the author of numerousbooks and articles on macroeconomics policy and theory, economic development, international trade, and economic history. His recent publications include Stability with Growth: Macroeconomics, Liberalization and Development, with Joseph E. Stiglitz, Shari Spiegel, Ricardo Ffrench-Davis and Deepak Nayyar (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). Professor Ocampo, relying on his expertise as a policy economist and his own considerable experience working on economic issues at the United Nations, has written an incisive introductory essay focusing on the United Nations and the global economic crisis. Professor Ocampo's essay examines the history of the economic policy recommendations of UN institutions and concludes that they have often been more far-sighted and accurate than those of the Bretton Woods Institutions, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. He applies this analysis in particular to the recent global financial crisis, and shows how the Monterrey Consensus of 2002, which once again made the UN a forum for global economic issues, gave serious consideration to the concerns of developing countries and set many goals that might have helped to stave off the global financial crisis if they had been more actively pursued. Professor Ocampo also examines the UN's role in the wake of the global financial meltdown, particularly with regard to the Doha follow-up Conference and the Commission of Experts on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System, convened by the General Assembly and led by Joseph Stiglitz. In spite of some resistance to these initiatives from the United States and other developed countries, Professor Ocampo advocates in this essay for a more influential role for the UN's institutions in global financial reform, especially in light of their superior track record in anticipating economic problems resulting from "the inherent tendency of financial markets to experience boom-bust cycles." The 2008-2009 volumes of ARUNA therefore also devote considerable attention to the financial crisis as well as other international crises. Among the documents in the 2008-2009 volumes are the complete General Assembly resolutions, as well as the Report and Resolutions of the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Annual Reports of note include reports of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the UN Development Programme and UN Population Fund, the UN High Commissioner for HumanRights, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugee in the Near East, and the World Food Programme. Mr. Muller and Dr. Sauvant have also selected progress reports on key peacekeeping, peace-building, and political missions, including those for Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Iraq, Kosovo, the Middle East, Somalia, Sudan, and West Africa. Each annual edition of ARUNA is introduced by a Guest Author, a distinguished expert on UN affairs, who highlights the outstanding themes of the year in review. Together with an overview provided by the editors, this introduction is intended to facilitate access to the material and, above all, to make it easer for users of ARUNA to "see the forest for the trees". As has been mentioned above, ARUNA is fortunate this year to have Jose Antonio Ocampo as the author of its introduction, but the roster of distinguished experts who have contributed this introduction in the past is also worthy of mention: Jeffrey D. Sachs: ARUNA 2007/2008 edition Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs is Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and Special Advisor to the Secretary-General of the UN on the Millennium Development Goals. Professor Sachs's introduction to ARUNA 2007/2008 was titled "Towards a New Global Protocol on Climate Change", in which he argued that solving the climate change problem will demand four steps: scientific consensus, public awareness, the development of alternative technologies, and a global framework for action. He dealt, in particular, with the science underpinning the negotiations for a new global protocol on climate change, as a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Professor Sachs argued that climate change crises can only be solved through the goals, leadership, and treaty mechanisms of the UN. Edward C. Luck: ARUNA 2006/2007 edition Professor Edward C. Luck is UN Special Advisor on the Responsibility to Protect and Vice President and Director of Studies at the International Peace Academy. From 1984 to 1994, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the UN Association of the USA (UNA-USA). Professor Luck's introduction to ARUNA 2006/2007 covered "The responsible sovereign and the responsibility to protect", in which he addressed the scope and content of what was agreed at the 2005 World Summit, the implications of the responsibility to protect (RtoP) for notions of state sovereignty, and some of the conceptual, architectural, and policy challenges then facing UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's commitment to "operationalizing" the responsibility to protect and translating it "from words to deeds". Louise Frechette: ARUNA 2005/2006 edition Ms Louise Frechette is Distinguished Fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Waterloo, Ontario. Until March 2006, she was the first Deputy Secretary-General of the UN; before that, she was Permanent Representative of Canada to the UN. Ms Frechette's introduction to ARUNA 2005/2006 covered "United Nations reform: an unfinished story". As the first Deputy Secretary-General of the UN, Ms Frechette was uniquely positioned to undertake a personal assessment of what has changed and what has not changed in the past decade at the UN and why. She examined if the UN is functioning better than it was 15 years ago, why reform is so difficult to achieve and what the future holds for the institutions. Rubens Ricupero: ARUNA 2004/2005 edition Mr Rubens Ricupero is Dean of the Fundacno Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP), Sao Paulo and was formerly Secretary-General of UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and Minister of Finance of Brazil. Mr Ricupero's introduction to ARUNA 2004/2005 covered "The difficulty of building consensus in an age of extremes" and examined the mysteries of the negotiating process leading to the outcome of the 2005 World Summit. Rather than a "Grand Bargain" of a comprehensive UN reformin the areas of development, security and human rights, it is argued that the Summit ended more on a note of lamentation and regret over a missed opportunity. Mr Ricupero concludes that contrary to the daring proclamation at the outset by the Secretary-General, the conditions indispensable to succeed were not in place. Indeed, it was hard to imagine that an ambitious and balanced reform package for the UN could have had any real chance of succeeding.

Landforms of Somali

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.

Author: LLC Books

Publisher: Books LLC, Wiki Series

ISBN: 1157110126

Category:

Page: 22

View: 174

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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 62. Chapters: Caves of Somalia, Gulf of Aden, Headlands of Somalia, Islands of Somalia, Rivers of Somalia, USS Cole bombing, Bab-el-Mandeb, Somaliland, Horn of Africa, Cape Guardafui, Piracy in Somalia, Djibouti, Socotra, Colony of Aden, Berbera, Bosaso, MV Iran Deyanat, Hadhramaut, November 11, 2008 incident off Somalia, Qandala, Shebelle River, Laas Gaal, Al Mukalla, Federation of South Arabia, Hafun, MV Powerful, Jubba River, MV S Venus, MV Liberty Sun, Bajuni Islands, Maritime Security Patrol Area, Obock, MV Safmarine Asia, Bari, Somalia, MV Irene, Dawa River, MV Sea Horse, Ocelis, Yemen Ports Authority, Gulf of Tadjoura, Jubba Valley, Togdheer River, Sheikh, Shebelle Valley. Excerpt: Piracy in Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War in the early 21st century. Since 2005, many international organizations, including the International Maritime Organization and the World Food Programme, have expressed concern over the rise in acts of piracy. Piracy has contributed to an increase in shipping costs and impeded the delivery of food aid shipments. Ninety percent of the World Food Program's shipments arrive by sea, and ships into this area now require a military escort. A United Nations report and several news sources have suggested that piracy off the coast of Somalia is caused in part by illegal fishing and the dumping of toxic waste in Somali waters by foreign vessels that have, according to Somali fishermen, severely constrained the ability of locals to earn a living and forced many to turn to piracy instead. Other articles allege that 70 percent of the local coastal communities "strongly support the piracy as a form of national defense of the country's territorial waters," and that the pirates believe they are protecting their fishing grounds and exacting justice and com...

Ending Somali Piracy Against American and Allied Shipping

Clans Backing Piracy Darood (aka Darod, Daroud) The Darood clan lives
principally in the north, with a presence in ... The Marehan are dominant in south-
central Gedo region, while the Ogaden can be found in southern Somalia as well
as in ...

Author: Mark Kirk

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9781437985979

Category:

Page: 15

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With pirates now holding two dozen major ships and hundreds of crew held hostage, their multi-million dollar ransoms have become a major source of funding for Somali Al Qaeda affiliates running the largest terror training camps on earth. Unless U.S. government policy becomes more aggressive to attack pirates, we will see a huge increase in terrorism from Al Qaeda affiliates that feed off pirate ransoms. Somali pirates now operate across Persian Gulf supply lines, critical to American and allied energy needs. This report argues that the U.S. can fix this problem, lowering costs to the U.S. economy and restoring the security of America¿s gasoline supplies. It presents an overview of the problem and offers solutions. Illus. A print on demand report.