Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics

This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

Author: Tobias Dörr

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889631520

Category:

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Bacterial cells are encased in a cell wall, which is required to maintain cell shape and to confer physical strength to the cell. The cell wall allows bacteria to cope with osmotic and environmental challenges and to secure cell integrity during all stages of bacterial growth and propagation, and thus has to be sufficiently rigid. Moreover, to accommodate growth processes, the cell wall at the same time has to be a highly dynamic structure: During cell enlargement, division, and differentiation, bacteria continuously remodel, degrade, and resynthesize their cell wall, but pivotally need to assure cell integrity during these processes. Finally, the cell wall is also adjusted according to both environmental constraints and metabolic requirements. However, how exactly this is achieved is not fully understood. The major structural component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), a mesh-like polymer of glycan chains interlinked by short-chain peptides, constituting a net-like macromolecular structure that has historically also termed murein or murein sacculus. Although the basic structure of PG is conserved among bacteria, considerable variations occur regarding cross-bridging, modifications, and attachments. Moreover, different structural arrangements of the cell envelope exist within bacteria: a thin PG layer sandwiched between an inner and outer membrane is present in Gram-negative bacteria, and a thick PG layer decorated with secondary glycopolymers including teichoic acids, is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, even more complex envelope structures exist, such as those found in mycobacteria. Crucially, all bacteria possess a multitude of often redundant lytic enzymes, termed “autolysins”, and other cell wall modifying and synthesizing enzymes, allowing to degrade and rebuild the various structures covering the cells. However, how cell wall turnover and cell wall biosynthesis are coordinated during different stages of bacterial growth is currently unclear. The mechanisms that prevent cell lysis during these processes are also unclear. This Research Topic focuses on the dynamics of the bacterial cell wall, its modifications, and structural rearrangements during cell growth and differentiation. It pays particular attention to the turnover of PG, its breakdown and recycling, as well as the regulation of these processes. Other structures, for example, secondary polymers such as teichoic acids, which are dynamically changed during bacterial growth and differentiation, are also covered. In recent years, our view on the bacterial cell envelope has undergone a dramatic change that challenged old models of cell wall structure, biosynthesis, and turnover. This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

Surfactants in Tribology 2 Volume Set

... 363–364 B Bacterial cell wall fats and phospholipids, 566 lipopolysaccharides, 569 peptidoglycan structure and function, 567–569 steroids, 566–567 teichoic acids, 567–568 types gram-negative cells, 569–570 gram-positive cell, ...

Author: Girma Biresaw

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439863145

Category: Science

Page: 960

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Surfactants play a critical role in tribology as they control friction, wear, and lubricant properties such as emulsification, demulsification, bioresistance, oxidation resistance, rust prevention, and corrosion resistance. The use of surfactants in tribology is a critical topic for scientists and engineers who are developing new materials and devi

Cumulated Index Medicus

Its relation to Action of lysozyme on gram - positive bacteria and the Serum and urinary lysozyme ( muramidase ) in contractile element velocity and proposed muscle structure of cell walls . Salton MR . monocytic and monomyelocytic ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: COLUMBIA:HR02001012

Category: Medicine

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Research Grants Index

... coagulation , surface synthesis - Cell wall assembly and degradation circulation in hypertensive patients hypertension ( human ) during cell cycle ( Gram positive bacteria ) MO1RR - 00645-03 0060 Clinical research center - Effects ...

Author: National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Division of Research Grants

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015022081916

Category: Medicine

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Racing for the Surface

Investigations aimed at understanding the physiological changes that bacteria undergo when growing in PCs as biofilms have revealed that the chemical composition and structure of the cell wall and biofilm matrix of S. epidermidis change ...

Author: Bingyun Li

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030344757

Category: Medical

Page: 650

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This book covers the latest research in biofilm, infection, and antimicrobial strategies in reducing and treating musculoskeletal, skin, transfusion, implant-related infections, etc. Topics covered include biofilms, small colony variants, antimicrobial biomaterials (antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, hydrogels, bioinspired interfaces, immunotherapeutic approaches, and more), antimicrobial coatings, engineering and 3D printing, antimicrobial delivery vehicles, and perspectives on clinical impacts. Antibiotic resistance, which shifts the race toward bacteria, and strategies to reduce antibiotic resistance, are also briefly touched on. Combined with its companion volume, Racing for the Surface: Pathogenesis of Implant Infection and Advanced Antimicrobial Strategies, this book bridges the gaps between infection and tissue engineering, and is an ideal book for academic researchers, clinicians, industrial engineers and scientists, governmental representatives in national laboratories, and advanced undergraduate students and post-doctoral fellows who are interested in infection, microbiology, and biomaterials and devices.

The Pangenome

Diversity, Dynamics and Evolution of Genomes Hervé Tettelin, Duccio Medini ... This pathway is involved in the production of isoprenoids, and has been shown to be essential in different Gram-positive bacteria (Wilding et al.

Author: Hervé Tettelin

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030382810

Category: Biology (General)

Page: 307

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This open access book offers the first comprehensive account of the pan-genome concept and its manifold implications. The realization that the genetic repertoire of a biological species always encompasses more than the genome of each individual is one of the earliest examples of big data in biology that opened biology to the unbounded. The study of genetic variation observed within a species challenges existing views and has profound consequences for our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underpinning bacterial biology and evolution. The underlying rationale extends well beyond the initial prokaryotic focus to all kingdoms of life and evolves into similar concepts for metagenomes, phenomes and epigenomes. The books respective chapters address a range of topics, from the serendipitous emergence of the pan-genome concept and its impacts on the fields of microbiology, vaccinology and antimicrobial resistance, to the study of microbial communities, bioinformatic applications and mathematical models that tie in with complex systems and economic theory. Given its scope, the book will appeal to a broad readership interested in population dynamics, evolutionary biology and genomics.

Insect Infection and Immunity

(2007) Evolutionary dynamics of immune-related genes and pathways in disease-vector mosquitoes. Science 316, 1738–1743. Werner, T., Liu, G., Kang, D., Ekengren, S. et al. (2000) A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the ...

Author: Jens Rolff

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199551354

Category: Science

Page: 254

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This book is published on the occasion of the Royal Entomological Society's Symposium on Insect infection and immunity in Sheffield, July 15-17 2009.

The Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

ActA spans both the bacterial membrane and the peptidoglycan cell wall. Interacts with several mammalian proteins including ... (an actinobacterium) that has activitiy against Gram-positive bacteria and good antistreptococcal activity.

Author: John M. Lackie

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123849328

Category: Science

Page: 750

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The Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology, Fifth Edition, provides definitions for thousands of terms used in the study of cell and molecular biology. The headword count has been expanded to 12,000 from 10,000 in the Fourth Edition. Over 4,000 headwords have been rewritten. Some headwords have second, third, and even sixth definitions, while fewer than half are unchanged. Many of the additions were made to extend the scope in plant cell biology, microbiology, and bioinformatics. Several entries related to specific pharmaceutical compounds have been removed, while some generic entries (“alpha blockers, “NSAIDs, and “tetracycline antibiotics, for example), and some that are frequently part of the experimentalist’s toolkit and probably never used in the clinic, have been retained. The Appendix includes prefixes for SI units, the Greek alphabet, useful constants, and single-letter codes for amino acids. Thoroughly revised and expanded by over 20% with over 12,000 entries in cellular and molecular biology Includes expanded coverage of terms, including plant molecular biology, microbiology and biotechnology areas Consistently provides the most complete short definitions of technical terminology for anyone working in life sciences today Features extensive cross-references Provides multiple definitions, notes on word origins, and other useful features

Scanning Probe Microscopy of Functional Materials

2.14g). The bacterial cell wall consists of long chains of peptidoglycan that are cross- linked via flexible peptide bridges [91, 92]. While the composition and chemical structure of the peptidoglycan layer vary among bacteria, ...

Author: Sergei V. Kalinin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144197167X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 555

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The goal of this book is to provide a general overview of the rapidly developing field of novel scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques for characterization of a wide range of functional materials, including complex oxides, biopolymers, and semiconductors. Many recent advances in condensed matter physics and materials science, including transport mechanisms in carbon nanostructures and the role of disorder on high temperature superconductivity, would have been impossible without SPM. The unique aspect of SPM is its potential for imaging functional properties of materials as opposed to structural characterization by electron microscopy. Examples include electrical transport and magnetic, optical, and electromechanical properties. By bringing together critical reviews by leading researchers on the application of SPM to to the nanoscale characterization of functional materials properties, this book provides insight into fundamental and technological advances and future trends in key areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology.