Parasitic Infections in the Compromised Host

The first in a new series created to acknowledge the explosion of knowledge in fields related to infectious disesases and clinical microbiology.

Author: Peter D. Walzer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000147193

Category: Medical

Page: 552

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The first in a new series created to acknowledge the explosion of knowledge in fields related to infectious disesases and clinical microbiology. Thirteen contributions focus on organisms which are of major medical importance in this country or which have contributed to an understanding of pathology.

Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

The subject matter of this volume, the basis for which was a conference held in Philadelphia which focused on the subject of infections, including their diagnosis and treatment, in immunocompromised individuals.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1244844448

Category: Communicable diseases

Page: 208

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The subject matter of this volume, the basis for which was a conference held in Philadelphia which focused on the subject of infections, including their diagnosis and treatment, in immunocompromised individuals. The material is of the rapid spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first section dealt with the general subject of the immunocompromised host. Here, reviewed in detail, were the epidemiological and clinical aspects of opportunistic infections in patients with defective immune responses. It is widely acknowledged that infections are a major complication of the neoplastic process. Cancer-bearing patients are more prone to certain kinds of infectious and cancer chemotherapy almost always increases susceptibility to such infections. Depending upon the basic disease process of the cancer, a specific array of infectious diseases can predicted. Patients altered in thymus-derived lymphocyte populations or mononuclear phagocyte capabilities resulting in defects in cell mediated immunity or delayed hypersensitivity become highly susceptible to certain groups of organisms, whereas, profoundly neutropenic patients usually become infected with different organisms. The types of infection noted are relatively predictable for the type of immune defect, with some variations according to epidemiological factors. Major advances have been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications with increasing knowledge of their use. The application of so-called preventive procedures has had limited value to date, including immunotherapy, which appears to hold much promise. Covered also was the immunodulatory effects of microorganisms and their products. Infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites can stimulate the nonspecific proliferation and activation of the immune system or specifically stimulate the antimicrobial immune response resulting in humoral antibody or specific sensitized cells. Various microorganisms and their products, especially those derived from mycobacteria, and other intracellular bacteria, can stimulate nonspecific responses and activate macrophages. The perturbation of the immune response observed during experimental and human infections is well-documented. For the most part, this is brought about by either generalized anergy or a selective derequlation of immune responses. Additionally, bacterial, viral and fungal functions. Parasites can alter the immune response by enchancing polyclonal antibody responses or inducing excessive number of suppressor cells, which inhibit both specific and non-specific immune responses. Viral infections, in man and animals are known to depress existing immune responses including delayed hypersensitivity. Onchogenic viruses, in particular, have been widely studied in regards to their effects on immune parameter. These latter studies have direct relevance to AIDS with the demonstration that a human T-cell virus is the etiological agent. A wide variety of immunomodulatory agents have been studied experimentally in terms of their ability to reverse immunodeficiency induced by tumor viruses. The immunomodulatory properties of products derived from bacteria, including endotoxins, lipoteichoic acids and exotoxins have been shown to be due to selective effects on certain classes of immunocompetent cells. The interaction of bacteria of their products with macrophages results in the release of immunomodulatory mediators. Induction of small molecular weight substances such as prostaglandins also may occur in response to microorganisms or their products on immune response mechanisms. Subsequent session of the Symposium dealt with laboratory aspects of diagnosis of infectious diseases in compromised patients, as well as the description of various opportunistic infections in such patients. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial species are found in increasing numbers in compromised patients. Among these are Mycobacterium marinum and M. intracellulari. Various aspects of herpesvirus infections in immunocompromised hosts were covered in detail as were laboratory diagnosis and treatment. Fungal infections continue to be an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The role of Pneumocystis carinii and other parasitic infections in compromised hosts was discussed as was Cryptosporidium, another protozoan parasite. The effects of various biologically-active agents and immunostimulants on host immune response were covered in the concluding session. Liposomes and other particulate drug carriers can serve as models for localizing drugs predominantly in the mononculear phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelian system. Liposomes containing natural and synthetic immunomodulatory or anti-infective drugs (e.g. amphotericin B) have been shown effective in both animal and human infections as well as in animal tumor systems. The potential utility of this approach is compromised by toxicity problems encountered during extended treatment with liposomes with and without immunomodulators. Impairment of RES function and significant bone marrow pathology has been observed in animals treated i.v. with liposomes. These problems are a serious potential limiting factor in the future development of liposomes as a drug delivery system. The use of lymphokines and other biological response modifiers in the treatment of cancer was reviewed. Attempts to stimulate immune responses with a variety of non-specific immunomodulators in the form of bacterial extracts, viruses and chemicals have been largely unsuccessful in man. The rapid advances with genetically engineered biological products such as lymphokines and ctyokines and monclonal antibodies may prove useful for cancer treatment, but here again, early results have not been highly successful. Such agents may act directly on tumor cells and/or stimulate the patient to produce an anti-tumor response. The topics of infectious disease and malignancy in immunocompromised hosts and the immunological defects underlying such conditions are being examined with greater frequency by many scientists, tumor biologists and clinicians in exploring the nature and mechanism of immunodeficiency in various disease states and the types and frequency of infectious diseases in such patients should provide valuable new knowledge in the future for treating and, perhaps, even preventing such diseases.

Clinical Approach to Infection in the Compromised Host

However, prior to the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), important parasites in the immunocompromised host were largely limited to infections with Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis carinii, ...

Author: Robert H. Rubin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781461524908

Category: Medical

Page: 752

View: 716

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`With admirable clarity the authors-all highly regarded experts in their respective fields-present the clinician with a supremely readable and practical text. The emphasis here is pragmatic, although there is sufficient pathogenesis and physiology to provide a fine balance.'-Journal of the American Medical Association, from a review of the second edition. This updated and profusely illustrated edition is 75% larger than its first incarnation. New coverage includes transplantation medicine, AIDS, patient management, and host-parasite interactions.

Diagnostic Medical Parasitology

Some of the changes in this edition include substantially more photographs and drawings; additional examples of unusual parasitic infections; a discussion of the immune system and its relationship to the compromised host; an analysis of ...

Author: Lynne Shore Garcia

Publisher: Amer Society for Microbiology

ISBN: UOM:39015060572214

Category: Medical

Page: 764

View: 142

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Revised and updated edition of a reference/text that provides laboratorians, physicians, and other health care professionals with a comprehensive discussion of both aspects of the field of diagnostic medical parasitology: first, a discussion of the parasites, and second, relevant diagnostic methods designed to detect and identify the organisms present. Some of the changes in this edition include substantially more photographs and drawings; additional examples of unusual parasitic infections; a discussion of the immune system and its relationship to the compromised host; an analysis of diagnostic methods using newer technology; and an expanded chapter on quality control. Member price, $65. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

The Biologic and Clinical Basis of Infectious Diseases

The 5th Edition of this excellent reference guides the reader through the basics of microbiology, immunology, and infectious disease, and helps the reader to understand the significance of the host/parasite relationship in the development ...

Author: Guy P. Youmans

Publisher: W B Saunders Company

ISBN: UOM:39015054243533

Category: Medical

Page: 643

View: 658

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The 5th Edition of this excellent reference guides the reader through the basics of microbiology, immunology, and infectious disease, and helps the reader to understand the significance of the host/parasite relationship in the development or prevention of infection. With many new authors and completely revised and updated coverage, this edition includes new chapters on bone and joint infections, infections at the extremes of life, and diagnosis and management of infections in the immunocompromised host. Also features additional case histories and discussions. Contains discussions on a wide range of infectious diseases--from fungal respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and common intestinal parasitic infections to viral infections of the central nervous system. Details the latest findings on molecular biology of antibiotic resistance, susceptibility testing and monitoring, antimicrobial therapy, and principles of immunization. Discusses contemporary diseases, such as Lyme disease, Kawasaki disease, AIDS, and toxic shock syndrome. Provides reviews of pertinent immunology or microbiology and descriptions of clinical illnesses caused by various infectious agents. Includes extensive case presentations that enable readers to develop their analytic skills in using historical data, physical examination findings, and laboratory results. Chapters on bone and joint infections, infections at the extremes of life, and compromised hosts and their infections. More case histories with discussions.

Clinical Approach to Infection in the Compromised Host

Host. JOEL RUSKIN 1. Introduction In the United States, Western Europe, and the mature health care delivery systems of Asia and Africa, two parasitic diseases should be carefully considered in the evaluation of fever and possible ...

Author: R. Rubin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461566458

Category: Medical

Page: 685

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"Infection in the Compromised Host" has become a classic chapter in textbooks devoted to infectious diseases and internal medicine. The numbers of compromised hosts are increasing in the era of modem medicine because of our expanded capabilities to deal with difficult diseases, especially neoplasms. As a consequence, microbiologic complications related to the intensive care administered to these patients are increasing as well. Under these circum stances, not only does the underlying illness create conditions favorable for the development of unusual infections, but often the therapy contributes to the acquisition of potential pathogens that turn into agents responsible for severe and frequently fatal disease. Granulocytopenia and immunosuppression have been the two key fac tors in predisposing patients with cancer and other serious diseases to severe bacterial infections. Colonization by hospital-acquired pathogens and breaks in the anatomic barriers-as a result of disease or medical intervention-have contributed to the high incidence of infectious diseases in these patients. Although there is some overlap between the types of infection in granulocytopenic and immunosuppressed hosts, each ofthese clinical entities has distinctive features thatjustify considering them separately, reserving the term immunocompromised hosts only when refer ring to patients who are predisposed to opportunistic infections. For about two decades, infections in granulocytopenic patients have attracted the atten tion of clinicians because they represent a model for the study of antimicrobial drugs in hosts deprived of an essential element of defense against bacterial infection, that is, an adequate number of normally functioning granulocytes.

Pathology of Opportunistic Infections

This book presents the morphological details of various opportunistic pathogens for prompt identification, which is essential for the proper management of various bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections encountered in ...

Author: Ramesh K. Gupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811016691

Category: Medical

Page: 175

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This book presents the morphological details of various opportunistic pathogens for prompt identification, which is essential for the proper management of various bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections encountered in immunocompromised patients. Over the past few decades, certain therapeutic advances –such as organ transplantation, prolonged use of steroids and other immunosuppressants for various diseases and chemo-radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant tumors– have, in addition to improving patient survival, also contributed to significant aberrations in the patients’ host defense mechanisms. Further, due to compromised host resistance, certain clinical conditions such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and major organ-related problems like chronic renal failure, chronic liver and chronic lung diseases etc., make these patients potentially vulnerable to a variety of opportunistic infections. The challenges posed by the opportunistic pathogens are enormous. Early clinical suspicion, prompt morphological identification and timely management are essential so as to prevent high morbidity and mortality associated with these infections. These pathogens often go unnoticed due to a lack of familiarity with their morphological appearances in the context of histopathological and/or cytological evaluation.

Bailey Scott s Diagnostic Microbiology

Epidemiology of the More Common Groups of Human Parasites—cont'd Mode of Transmission Infection occurs through ... Parasitic Infections: Clinical Findings in Normal and Compromised Hosts Parasitic Infections: Clinical Findings in Normal ...

Author: Patricia Tille

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323681063

Category: Medical

Page: 1184

View: 777

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Perfect your lab skills with the essential text for diagnostic microbiology! Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 15th Edition Is known as the #1 bench reference for practicing microbiologists and as the preeminent text for students in clinical laboratory science programs. With hundreds of full-color illustrations and step-by-step methods for procedures, this text provides a solid, basic understanding of diagnostic microbiology and also covers more advanced techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Written by noted CLS educator Dr. Patricia Tille, Diagnostic Microbiology has everything you need to get accurate lab test results in class and in clinical practice. More than 800 high-quality, full-color illustrations help you visualize concepts. Expanded sections on parasitology, mycology, and virology allow you to use just one book, eliminating the need to purchase other microbiology textbooks for these topics. Hands-on procedures show exactly what takes place in the lab, including step-by-step methods, photos, and expected results. Case studies allow you to apply your knowledge to diagnostic scenarios and to develop critical thinking skills. Genera and Species boxes provide handy, at-a-glance summaries at the beginning of each organism chapter. Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter provide measurable outcomes to achieve by completing the chapter material. A glossary defines terms at the back of the book and on the Evolve companion website. New! Updated content includes infectious disease trends and new illustrations such as culture plate images of real specimens, complex gram stains, lactophenol cotton blue microscopy, and more. NEW COVID-19 information has been added. UPDATED topics include the Human Microbiome Project, expanded MALDI-TOF applications and molecular diagnostics in conjunction with traditional microbiology, additional streps, and significant news in mycology. EXPANDED glossary defines terms on the Evolve companion website.

Diagnostic Pathology of Parasitic Infections with Clinical Correlations

ascariasis , 369 wall , parasites found in , 741 Stool samples direct examination of , 6 Entamoeba histolytica in ... in immune - compromised hosts , 294 , 2957-2981 Subcutaneous tissue Gnathostoma infections , 421 , 422 parasites found ...

Author: Yezid Gutierrez

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195121430

Category: Medical

Page: 769

View: 794

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This book provides a comprehensive reference and diagnostic aid to the practicing pathologist or infectious disease specialist encountering a parasite in an examined tissue sample. Organized by phylogenetic group, the text facilitates diagnosis by discussing common characteristics and patterns of different parasites, and misleading artifacts that resemble parasites in tissue. This second edition includes molecular biology and immunologic aspects, and a more in-depth discussion of syndromes more prevalent due to increased world travel, immigration and the AIDS epidemic.

Biochemical Immunological and Epidemiological Analysis of Parasitic Diseases

The unique way of transfer, different in different species, is known as infection. All the parasites do not complete their lifecycle within a single host, a large number require two or three different hosts to complete their lifecycle.

Author: P. K. Bandyopadhyay

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811643842

Category: Electronic books

Page: 325

View: 655

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This book comprehensively reviews various vector-borne diseases and their control methods. It discusses morphology, life history, and pathogenicity of protozoan and helminth parasites. Further, it analyzes host-parasite interactions and their adaptation within the host system for understanding parasitic infections. The book discusses the complex life cycle, biochemical adaptations, and molecular biology of the parasites. It investigates the immunological response to different infectious agents and explores new targets for combined therapeutic approaches. It also summarizes the evolution of parasitism and the ecology of parasites of the different phylum. Lastly, it provides information on vector biology emphasizing the role of basic vector research in developing future disease control methods and improving upon the existing approaches.