Noble Metals and Biological Systems

During the past half century , however , there has been an increasing awareness of noble metal interaction with biological systems and their role and significance for this important relationship . No longer are noble metals thought of ...

Author: Robert R. Brooks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849361648

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 878


Noble Metals and Biological Systems examines the relationship between noble metals (gold, silver, and platinum group metals) and biological systems. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 is concerned with the analytical chemistry of noble metals and includes a description of the latest methods of analysis. Part 2 describes such topics as ecology and environmental science of noble metals as they pertain to biogeochemical exploration, noble metals in hair, the environmental geochemistry of palladium, microorganisms and noble metals, animals and noble metals, and a general survey of noble metals in the environment. Coverage is comprehensive and includes information regarding the use of dogs and termites as field assistants in mineral prospecting, as well as the fascinating story of the "gold bug", a microorganism that plates itself with gold. Part 3 is devoted entirely to noble metals in the treatment of disease and includes chapters describing the use of osmium and gold for arthritis treatment, silver as a bactericide, and platinum and ruthenium as anticancer agents. Noble Metals and Biological Systems will provide fascinating reading for applied geochemists, environmentalists, public health specialists, ecologists, microbiologists, clinical biochemists, oncologists, and specialists in rheumatic diseases.

Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration

As a result, there has been an exponential increase in biogeochemical knowledge, and information, over the past decade. In 1992, Robert Brooks compiled the book 'Noble Metals and Biological Systems' that covered a ...

Author: Colin E. Dunn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080546498

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 449


Significant refinements of biogeochemical methods applied to mineral exploration have been made during more than twenty years since the last major publication on this technique. This innovative, practical and comprehensive text is designed as a field handbook and an office reference volume. It outlines the historical development of biogeochemical methods applied to mineral exploration, and provides details of what, how, why and when to collect samples from all major climatic environments with examples from around the world. Recent commercialization of sophisticated analytical technology permits immensely more insight into the multi-element composition of plants. In particular, precise determination of ultra-trace levels of ‘pathfinder’ elements in dry tissues and recognition of element distribution patterns with respect to concealed mineralization. Data handling and interpretation are discussed in context of a wealth of previously unpublished information, including a section on plant mineralogy, much of which has been classified as confidential until recently. Data are provided on the biogeochemistry of more than 60 elements and, by case history examples, their roles discussed in assisting in the discovery of concealed mineral deposits. A look to the future includes the potential role of bacteria to provide new focus for mineral exploration. Analyses of samples from the controlled environment of Britain’s Eden Project are presented on an accompanying CD as part of a database that includes, also, the potential role of the halogens to assist in mineral exploration. Data on this CD provide a ‘hands-on’ approach for the reader to interrogate and personally assess real datasets from the burgeoning discipline of biogeochemical exploration. * Describes the practical aspects of plant selection and collection in different environments around the world, and how to process and analyze them * Discusses more than 60 elements in plants, with data interpretation and case history results that include exploration for Au, PGEs, U, base metals and kimberlites * Contains databases as digital files on an accompanying CD for "hands-on" experimentation with real biogeochemical data

Non Noble Metal Catalysis

... that allow non-noble metals to participate in multielectron redox processes under mild conditions. Multimetallic redox cooperation represents one promising approach toward this end. Thirdly, knowledge of biological systems and the ...

Author: Robertus J. M. Klein Gebbink

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527340613

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 610

View: 874


An expert overview of current research, applications, and economic and environmental advantages The study and development of new homogeneous catalysts based on first-row metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) has grown significantly due to the economic and environmental advantages that non-noble metals present. Base metals offer reduced cost, greater supply, and lower toxicity levels than noble metals?enabling greater opportunity for scientific investigation and increased development of practical applications. Non-Noble Metal Catalysis provides an authoritative survey of the field, from fundamental concepts and computational methods to industrial applications and reaction classes. Recognized experts in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis, the authors present a comprehensive overview of the conceptual and practical aspects of non-noble metal catalysts. Examination of topics including non-innocent ligands, proton-coupled electron transfer, and multi-nuclear complexes provide essential background information, while areas such as kinetic lability and lifetimes of intermediates reflect current research and shifting trends in the field. This timely book demonstrates the efficacy of base metal catalysts in the pharmaceutical, fine-chemical, and agrochemical industries, addressing both environmental and economic concerns. Providing essential conceptual and practical exploration, this valuable resource: -Illustrates how unravelling new reactivity patterns can lead to new catalysts and new applications -Highlights the multiple advantages of using non-noble metals in homogenous catalysis -Demonstrates how the availability of non-noble metal catalysis reduces costs and leads to immense savings for the chemical industry -Reveals how non-noble metal catalysis are more sustainable than noble metals such as palladium or platinum Non-Noble Metal Catalysis: Molecular Approaches and Reactions is an indispensable source of up-to-date information for catalytic chemists, organic chemists, industrial chemists, organometallic chemists, and those seeking to broaden their knowledge of catalytic chemistry.

Nanostructured Materials based on Noble Metals for Advanced Biological Applications

These results open new ways for AgNPs sensing applications in environmental tests on more complex biological systems, up to tests on real environmental aquatic scenarios. In conclusion, as editor of this special issue, I am aware that ...

Author: Iole Venditti

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039288335

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 374


The Special Issue “Nanostructured Materials Based on Noble Metals for Advanced Biological Applications” highlights the recent progress in gold and silver nanomaterials preparation/synthesis as well as their innovative applications in advanced applications, such as in nanomedicine and nanosensors. It is nowadays generally accepted that nanostructured noble metals allow the production of highly competitive materials. In fact, a specific design and rather simple and reliable preparation techniques can be used to obtain optimized material uses and possibilities for their reusability. One expects amazing future developments for these nanotechnologies from research laboratories to key industrial areas. The Guest Editor and the MDPI staff are therefore pleased to offer this Special Issue to interested readers, including researchers, graduate and PhD students as well as postdoctoral researchers, but also to the entire community interested in the wide world of nanomaterials.

Chemo Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization

However, noble metals are scarce and expensive, hence restricting their wide applications in BRM process. Thus, Ni-based catalysts are now frequently studied for BRM reaction due to their availability, effective performance, ...

Author: Ashok Kumar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000174823

Category: Nature

Page: 302

View: 341


Chemo-Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization describes the most recent advanced tools and techniques for carbon dioxide capture and its utilization. It discusses and compares the advantages of different systems and aids researchers and industrialists in understanding energy generation in the form of biofuels, bioelectricity, or biogas using chemicals; nanomaterials; and microbial, enzymatic, and chemo-enzymatic-integrated systems. It describes the importance and utilization of CO2 in living systems, and provides an overview of the various fundamental methods, policies, and techniques involved in CO2 conversion. Emphasis is placed on the production of value-added products using CO2, including biomethanol, industrial carbonates, and liquid or gaseous fuels. Features: Explains the correlations between microbial, biological, and chemical products and their roles in the conversion of CO2 into usable energy and related products. Being suitable for a broad audience, it addresses fundamental treatment methods for reusing environmental waste materials. Aids in decision-making and policy planning for environmental professionals. The information provided throughout this book will help researchers and professionals working in various industries to better understand the conversion of CO2 into energy-based products. Chemo-Biological Systems for CO2 Utilization also serves as a useful guide to seek alternative methods for clean energy and mitigating global climate change.

Agromining Farming for Metals

J Geochem Explor 17:109–122 Brooks RR, Watterson JR (1992) The noble metal biogeochemistry of microorganisms. ... J Geochem Explor 16:21–26 Brown PH, Rathjen AH, Graham RD, Tribe DE (1990) Rare earth elements in biological systems.

Author: Antony van der Ent

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030589042

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 489

View: 411


This second and expanded edition of the first book on agromining (phytomining) presents a comprehensive overview of the metal farming & recovery of the agromining production chain. Agromining is an emerging technology that aims to transform the extraction of sources of target elements not accessible by traditional mining and processing techniques. Agromining, which is based on sustainable development, uses hyperaccumulator plants as 'metal crops' farmed on sub-economic soils or minerals wastes to obtain valuable target elements. This volume is edited and authored by the pioneers in the rapidly expanding field of agromining and presents the latest insights and developments in the field. This book provides in-depth information on the global distribution and ecology of hyperaccumulator plants, their biogeochemical pathways, the influence of rhizosphere microbes, the physiology and molecular biology of hyperaccumulation, as well as aspects of propagation and conservation of these unusual plants. It describes the agronomy of metal crops and opportunities for incorporating agromining into rehabilitation and mine closure, including test cases for agromining of nickel, cobalt, manganese, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, zinc, thallium, rare earth elements and platinum group elements. Since the first edition was published, there have successful nickel agromining field trials in the tropics (in Malaysia and Guatemala), and these are presented in a dedicated case study chapter. Other new chapters focus on the processing of bio-ore for elements other than nickel, such as rare earth elements and cadmium, and on agromining from industrial wastes such as tailings, and industrial by-products and sites. Furthermore, the book features two new chapters that provide a comprehensive assessment of accumulation a very wide range elements from the Periodic Table in various plant species around the globe, and a chapter on practical methods for discovery of hyperaccumulator plant species in the field and in the herbarium. This book is of interest to environmental professionals in the minerals industry, government regulators, and academics.

Green Metal Nanoparticles

Figure 16.1 Biosynthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using various biological agents. ... In recent time, synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles via green-chemistry approach using microorganisms and biological systems have especially ...

Author: Suvardhan Kanchi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119418863

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 720

View: 774


The use of biological sources such as microbes and plants can help in synthesizing nanoparticles in a reliable and eco-friendly way. The synthesis of nanoparticles by these natural sources is characterized by processes that take place near to ambient temperature and pressures and also near neutral pH. This edited volume authored by subject specialists, provides all the latest research and builds a database of bioreduction agents to various metal nanoparticles using different precursor systems. The book also highlights the different strategies such as simplicity, cost-effectiveness, environment-friendly and easily scalable, and includes parameters for controlling the size and shape of the materials developed from the various greener methods. In order to exploit the utmost potential metal nanoparticles synthesis from the different sources such as agricultural waste, flora and fauna, food waste, microbes and biopolymer systems, it is also crucial to recognize the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of production of nanoparticles and their characterization.

Noble and Precious Metals

Biomaterials In 1987, Williams defined biomaterials as “A biomaterial is a nonviable material used in a (medical) device, intended to interact with biological systems” [13]. Biomaterials are mainly used for implants [14, 15], ...

Author: Mohindar Seehra

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9781789232929

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 525


The use of copper, silver, gold and platinum in jewelry as a measure of wealth is well known. This book contains 19 chapters written by international authors on other uses and applications of noble and precious metals (copper, silver, gold, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium, ruthenium, and rhenium). The topics covered include surface-enhanced Raman scattering, quantum dots, synthesis and properties of nanostructures, and its applications in the diverse fields such as high-tech engineering, nanotechnology, catalysis, and biomedical applications. The basis for these applications is their high-free electron concentrations combined with high-temperature stability and corrosion resistance and methods developed for synthesizing nanostructures. Recent developments in all these areas with up-to-date references are emphasized.

Biological Systems in Mineral Exploration and Processing

( 1983b ) Biological methods of prospecting for minerals . Wiley , New York . Brooks , R.R. ( 1992 ) Animals and noble metals . In : Brooks , R.R . ( ed . ) , Noble metals and biological systems . CRC Press , Boca Raton , pp.197-217 .

Author: R. R. Brooks

Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall

ISBN: STANFORD:36105012371378

Category: Geobotanical prospecting

Page: 568

View: 417


A steady increase in interest in biological systems in mineral exploration and processing has led to the need for a book bringing together the multi-disciplinary aspects of the subject. This book encompasses a number of fields in a single volume, including Russian work on the use of barrier-free plant organisms for biogeochemical prospecting.

DNA Engineered Noble Metal Nanoparticles

Such building blocks can be biological or synthetic molecules or inorganic colloidal nanoparticles. Different types of such building blocks can be chosen and assembled within one matrix dealing as carrier system.

Author: Ignác Capek

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119120933

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 359


There is a growing interest in the use of nanoparticles modifiedwith DNAs, viruses, peptides and proteins for the rational designof nanostructured functional materials and their use in biosensorapplications. The challenge is to control the organization ofbiomolecules on nanoparticles while retaining their biologicalactivity as potential chemical and gene therapeutics. Thesenoble metal nanoparticles/biomolecules conjugates have specificproperties and therefore they are attractive materials fornanotechnology in biochemistry and medicine. In this book, the author review work performed dealing with theDNA structure and functionalities, interactions between DNA, noblemetal nanoparticles, surface active agents, solvents and otheradditives. Particular attention is given to how the DNA’schain length and the DNA conformation affect the interaction andstructure of the nanoconjugates and nanostructures that are formed.Also discussed are the recent advances in the preparation,characterization, and applications of noble metal nanoparticlesthat are conjugated with DNA aptamers and oligomers. The advantagesand disadvantages of functionalized nanoparticles through variousdetection modes are highlighted, including colorimetry,fluorescence, electrochemistry, SPR, and, mass spectrometry for thedetection of small molecules and biomolecules. The functionalizednoble metal nanoparticles are selective and sensitive for theanalytes, showing their great potential in biosensing. Furthermore,this book reviews recent progress in the area of DNA-noble metalnanoparticles based artificial nanostructures, that is, thepreparation, collective properties, and applications of variousDNA-based nanostructures are also described.