Mulla Sadra and Metaphysics

Looking at the concept of philosophy as a way of life and a therapeutic practice, this book explores the paradigm of the modulation of being in the philosophical method and metaphysics of Mulla Sadra and considers its different ...

Author: Sajjad H. Rizvi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134008582

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

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Mulla Sadra is one of the most important Islamic philosophers after Avicenna. In this exploration of his philosophy, Sajjad H. Rizvi examines the central doctrine of the modulation of being, and contextualises his work within the intellectual history of philosophical traditions in the Islamic East. Reading and critiquing the works of Mulla Sadra from an analytical perspective, this book pays particular attention to his text the Asfar, a work which, due to its complexity, is often overlooked. Looking at the concept of philosophy as a way of life and a therapeutic practice, this book explores the paradigm of the modulation of being in the philosophical method and metaphysics of Mulla Sadra and considers its different manifestations. Rizvi relates his philosophy to larger trends and provides a review of the field, charting and critiquing the discussion on the topic to date and exploring recent thought in this direction, to show how Sadrian thought was addressed well into the 19th and 20th centuries. This major contribution to the study of Mulla Sadra and the intellectual life of the Safavid period fills an important gap in the field of Sadra studies and Islamic philosophy, and is indispensable to students of philosophy, religion and Islamic studies, and Islamic philosophy in particular.

From Essence to Being

An analysis that delves into the most controversial subjects of Islamic and Western existential philosophy.

Author: Muhammad Kamal

Publisher: ICAS Press

ISBN: 9781904063377

Category: Ontology

Page: 207

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In a unique parallel analysis, Muhammad Kamal delves into the most controversial subjects of Islamic and Western existential philosophy. He explores the philosophical turn, ontological difference, becoming, and nothingness in the ontology of Mulla Sadra and Martin Heidegger. He shows how they both held Being as the sole reality and opposed Platos metaphysics as an established philosophical tradition, which led to in Heideggers words the oblivion of Being. As Kamal explicates, Heideggers opposition to Plato became manifest in his deconstruction of the history of ontology, while Mulla Sadras opposition to Plato was through his criticism of Suhrawardis doctrine of the principality of essence. These new interpretations of being by two philosophers brought new life to both Islamic and Western schools of philosophy and have formed the basis of much of modern ontology, epistemology, and philosophical psychology.

Between Physics and Metaphysics Mulla Sadra on Nature and Motion

This book is one of the many Islamic publications distributed by Mustafa Organization throughout the world in different languages with the aim of conveying the message of Islam to the people of the world.

Author: I. Kalin

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 154667554X

Category:

Page: 34

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This book is one of the many Islamic publications distributed by Mustafa Organization throughout the world in different languages with the aim of conveying the message of Islam to the people of the world. Mustafa Organization is a registered Organization that operates and is sustained through collaborative efforts of volunteers in many countries around the world, and it welcomes your involvement and support. Its objectives are numerous, yet its main goal is to spread the truth about the Islamic faith in general and the Shi`a School of Thought in particular due to the latter being misrepresented, misunderstood and its tenets often assaulted by many ignorant folks, Muslims and non-Muslims. Organization's purpose is to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge through a global medium, the Internet, to locations where such resources are not commonly or easily accessible or are resented, resisted and fought!

Mulla Sadra and Eschatology

Explaining Mullā Sadrā ‘s distinctive method of "doing" philosophy, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Islamic Philosophy, Religion and Islamic Studies more broadly.

Author: Eiyad S. Al-Kutubi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317639060

Category: Religion

Page: 152

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The book explains Sadrā’s theory of the nature of afterlife. It presents Sadrā’s philosophical premises concerning the nature of human beings and their physical and psychological developments through which Sadrā shows how the afterlife is intimately connected to the nature of the human being and how it is a natural stage of the evolution of each individual in which a corporeal body has no role. Presenting Mullā Sadrā in a new light, the aim of this book is to investigate Sadrā’s metaphysical principles of the Return (al-ma‘ād) that have been either partially presented or misunderstood in most of the existing secondary literature. Focusing on Sadrā’s philosophical works, specifically the Asfār and his commentary on the Quran, this study demonstrates how Sadrā is a philosopher able to carry the premises of the previous philosophical theories to radically different conclusions. Mullā Sadrā and Eschatology demonstrates the manner in which Sadrā explains the Return as presented in the Quran and Hadith, but also shows how he presents the Return as a natural stage of the evolution of human beings in which a corporeal body has no role. Thus, Sadrā offers a plausible philosophical explanation to the problem of bodily resurrection that had occupied Muslim philosophers for centuries. Explaining Mullā Sadrā ‘s distinctive method of "doing" philosophy, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Islamic Philosophy, Religion and Islamic Studies more broadly.

Mulla Sadra s Transcendent Philosophy

Of particular value to students of philosophy, Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, philosophy of religion, and general readers who seek to understand Muslim philosophy, this book explores the significance of the doctrine of Mulla Sadra and ...

Author: Muhammad Kamal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317093695

Category: Religion

Page: 142

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Sadradin Shirazi (1571-1640), known also as Mulla Sadra, spoke of the primacy of Being and promoted a new ontology, founding a new epistemology. Mulla Sadra's ontology is an important philosophical turn and contribution to the understanding of the development of Muslim philosophy and thought. This comprehensive study of Mulla Sadra's philosophical thought explores his departure from tradition; his turn to the doctrine of the primacy of Being; the dynamic characteristics of Being and the concept of substantial change; comparisons with Heidegger's fundamental ontology; and the influence of Mulla Sadra's ontology on subsequent Muslim philosophy. Of particular value to students of philosophy, Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, philosophy of religion, and general readers who seek to understand Muslim philosophy, this book explores the significance of the doctrine of Mulla Sadra and its impact on subsequent debates in the Muslim world.

This edition contains parallel English-Arabic texts and a new translation by preeminent scholar of Islamic philosophy Seyyed Hossein Nasr.

Author: Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī

Publisher: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship

ISBN: 0842528393

Category: Philosophy

Page: 121

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Mulla Sadra (ca. 1572-1640) is one of the most prominent figures of post-Avicennan Islamic philosophy and among the most important philosophers of Safavid Persia. He was a prolific writer whose work advanced the fields of intellectual and religious science in Islamic philosophy, but arguably his most important contribution to Islamic philosophy is in the study of existence (wujud) and its application to such areas as cosmology, epistemology, psychology, and eschatology. Sadra represents a paradigm shift from the Aristotelian metaphysics of fixed substances, which had dominated Islamic philosophy, to an analysis of existence as the ultimate ground and dynamic source of things. He posits that all beings derive their reality and truth from their wujud and that a proper philosophical analysis must therefore start and eventually end with it. The present work's focus on Sadra's gradational ontology provides a strong foundation for the reader to understand Sadra's other works and later texts by other philosophers working in the same field. This edition contains parallel English-Arabic texts and a new translation by preeminent scholar of Islamic philosophy Seyyed Hossein Nasr.

The Act of Being

Exploring the thought of Mulla Sadra Shirazi, an Iranian Shi'ite of the seventeenth century: a universe of politics, morality, liberty, and order that is indispensable to our understanding of Islamic thought and spirituality.

Author: Christian Jambet

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: STANFORD:36105123237633

Category: Philosophy

Page: 497

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Exploring the thought of Mulla Sadra Shirazi, an Iranian Shi'ite of the seventeenth century: a universe of politics, morality, liberty, and order that is indispensable to our understanding of Islamic thought and spirituality.

The Triumph of Mercy

This book investigates the convergence of philosophy, scriptural exegesis, and mysticism in the thought of the celebrated Islamic philosopher Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1640).

Author: Mohammed Rustom

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9781438443423

Category: Religion

Page: 255

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Discusses philosopher Mullā Ṣadrā’s commentary on the opening chapter of the Qur'ān. This book investigates the convergence of philosophy, scriptural exegesis, and mysticism in the thought of the celebrated Islamic philosopher Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1640). Through a careful presentation of the theoretical and practical dimensions of Ṣadrā’s Qur'ānic hermeneutics, Mohammed Rustom highlights the manner in which Ṣadrā offers a penetrating metaphysical commentary upon the Fātiḥa, the chapter of the Qur'ān that occupies central importance in Muslim daily life. Engaging such medieval intellectual giants as Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210) and Ibn 'Arabī (d. 638/1240) on the one hand, and the wider disciplines of philosophy, theology, Sufism, and Qur'ānic exegesis on the other, Ṣadrā’s commentary upon the Fātiḥa provides him with the opportunity to modify and recast many of his philosophical positions within a scripture-based framework. He thereby reveals himself to be a profound religious thinker who, among other things, argues for the salvation of all human beings in the afterlife.

Revelation Intellectual Intuition and Reason in the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra

This book examines and analyses the legitimacy of the widely held claim that Mulla Sadra's philosophy (al-hikmah al-muta'aliyyah) is a synthesis of principles and doctrines drawn from revelation (wahy), gnosis ('irfan/ma'rifah) and ...

Author: Zailan Moris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136858666

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

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This book examines and analyses the legitimacy of the widely held claim that Mulla Sadra's philosophy (al-hikmah al-muta'aliyyah) is a synthesis of principles and doctrines drawn from revelation (wahy), gnosis ('irfan/ma'rifah) and discursive philosophy (al-hikmah al-bahthiyyah). In Mulla Sadra's view, these three major sources of knowledge can be brought together without contradiction and accorded their respective roles in the human quest for true and certain knowledge. This book discusses and demonstrates how Mulla Sadra achieves this synthesis as contained in and exemplified by his text, al-Hikmah al-'arshiyyah or Wisdom from the Divine Throne. An evaluation on whether or not Mulla Sadra's synthesis is successful is also undertaken. The criteria used for the evaluation are the internal coherence of his ideas, their conformity to Islamic teachings and impact on Islamic thinkers after him.

The Fundamental Principles of Mulla Sadra s Transcendent Philosophy

Chapter One of this book discusses the question of what Transcendent Philosophy' is.

Author: Reza Akbarian

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: IND:30000128966573

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

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Mulla Sadra, known also as Sadr al-Muta'allihin, the greatest Iranian-Muslim philosopher and founding father of the Transcendent Philosophy', was born in Shiraz, Iran in the year 1571 and died in 1641. His writings focus on philosophy and commentaries on the Qur'an and Al-Usul Al-Kafi. His most important philosophical writings include Al-Asfar Al-Arba at Al- Aqliyyah, Al-Shawahid Al-Rububiyya, Al-Hikamat Al- Arshiyya, Kitab Al-Masha ir, and Al-Mabda' wa Al-Ma ad. The present work consists of five chapters, written on two categories: The Transcendent Philosophy and Mulla Sadra's School, and Comparative Studies of Mulla Sadra and Other Philosophers. Several years of work enabled Dr Akbarian to complete some parts of this project, which concerns the relation of Mulla Sadra to the totality of the Islamic tradition, and the characteristics of his Transcendent Philosophy' being used in its original sense. We hope, therefore, that in this form the work will serve as a complete intro¬duction to the teachings of Sadr al-Muta'allihin in philosophy, as well as aid in making better known the doctrine of Mulla Sadra in synthesising between revelation, illumination and ratiocination in a world which is suffering so grievously as a result of it having separated these paths to the Truth from each other. Chapter One of this book discusses the question of what Transcendent Philosophy' is. When we turn to the writings of Mulla Sadra himself, we do not find any passages in which he explicitly designates his own school as Transcendent Philosophy' (al-hikmat al-muta'aliyah). Mulla Sadra expands the mean¬ing of falsafah to include the dimension of illumination and realisation as implied by the ishraqi and also Sufi understanding of the term. For him, as for his contemporaries as well as most of his successors, falsafah or philosophy was perceived as the supreme science of ultimately divine origin, derived from the niche of prophecy', and the hukama' as the most perfect of human beings, standing in rank only below the prophets and Imams. This conception that philosophy deals with discovering the truth concerning the nature of things, and that it combines mental knowl¬edge with the purification and perfection of one's being, has lasted to this day wherever the tradition of Islamic philosophy has continued; it is in fact embodied in the very being of the most eminent representatives of the Islamic philosophical tradition thus far. Both their works and their lives were testimony, not only to over a millennium of concern by Islamic philosophers with regards to the meaning of the concept and the term philosophy', but also to the significance of the Islamic definition of philosophy as that reality which transforms both the mind and the soul and which is ultim¬ately never separated from the spiritual purity and ultimately, the sanctity that the very term hikmah implies in the Islamic context. Chapter Two, "Being and its various polarizations", consists of four sections: 1. Existence as a Predicate; 2. The Metaphysical Distinction between Quiddity' and Existence' (The Fundamental Principle of Ibn Sina's Ontology); 3. The Principle of Primacy of Existence' over Quiddity' and its Philosophical Results; 4. Mulla Sadra's Proof of God's Existence (Burhan-e Siddiqin/The Argument of the Righteous). The question of existence as a predicate' enjoys an outstanding significance from the historical and comparative point of view. Kant, the eminent German philosopher, claimed that existence could not be a real predicate for its own subject since existence is not a concept that could add anything to an object. According to Kant, existence in its logical sense is, merely, copula (rabit) rather than either of the terms. The copula of the proposition on the other hand, does not indicate something that owns a real referent. Its exclusive role is, rather, to establish a nexus between the predicate and the subject. Mulla Sadra accepts existence as an

Mulla Sadra

A timely biography on the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years Mulla Sadra (572 - 1640) is perhaps the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in ...

Author: Sayeh Meisami

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781780743349

Category: Religion

Page: 160

View: 316

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A timely biography on the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years Mulla Sadra (572 - 1640) is perhaps the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. The author of over forty works, he sought to bring to life the whole heritage of Islamic thought, from philosophy to mysticism, and create a more flexible and conciliatory approach to the problems which seemed to dissociate reason from faith. In this wide-ranging profile, Sayeh Meisami reaches beyond historical narrative to assess the true impact of the man and his ideas. This thought provoking and comprehensive account is ideal for any philosopher wanting to uncover the life and thoughts of a man who represents the climax of intellectual tradition at a crucial point in the history of Islamic civilization.

Philosophy and The Intellectual Life In Shi ah Islam

The volume aims to make an initial contribution, both by opening up fresh lines of inquiry into the 'Intellectual Life in Shīʿah Islam' and by encouraging further research into Shīʿī intellectual history.

Author: Saiyad Nizamuddin Ahmad

Publisher: Shi'ah Institute Symposia Series

ISBN: 0993588433

Category: Shīʻah

Page: 274

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Contains a series of studies into the philosophical trends and thinkers associated with the Shīʻī tradition. The volume offers insight into the rich intellectual history in Shīʻah Islam of examining enduring and integral theological, mystical, metaphysical, and epistemological questions. The chapters are broad in scope, commencing from the classical period of philosophical theology and proceeding to examine philosophical aspects of the thought of al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, Mīr Dāmād, and Mullā Ṣadrā, amongst others.

Divine Manifestations

Focuses on divine metaphysics.

Author: Mulla Sadra Shirazi

Publisher:

ISBN: 1904063357

Category:

Page: 195

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This is Mulla Sadra's final work on divine metaphysics. He wrote it in order to elucidate a new rational theology in which he demonstrated the most controversial topics in Islamic theology. Although he does not explicitly refer to orthodox Islamic theologians' approaches, his book is replete with indirect criticism and commentary on the deficiency of their methods. In this book, he discusses the existence of God, His attributes, His acts, and the Resurrection as well as the nature of the non-material worlds. His approach is both philosophical and textual, in that he bases his discussion on verses of the Holy Qur'an as well as hadith. It is a valuable work for anyone interested in knowing how in a systematic method of rational thinking, philosophy, theology and religion harmoniously and rationally can meet one another.

Knowledge in Later Islamic Philosophy

This study looks at how the seventeenth-century philosopher Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi, known as Mulla Sadra, attempted to reconcile the three major forms of knowledge in Islamic philosophical discourses: revelation (Qur'an), demonstration ...

Author: Ibrahim Kalin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190453657

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

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This study looks at how the seventeenth-century philosopher Sadr al-Din al-Shirazi, known as Mulla Sadra, attempted to reconcile the three major forms of knowledge in Islamic philosophical discourses: revelation (Qur'an), demonstration (burhan), and gnosis or intuitive knowledge ('irfan). In his grand synthesis, which he calls the 'Transcendent Wisdom', Mulla Sadra bases his epistemological considerations on a robust analysis of existence and its modalities. His key claim that knowledge is a mode of existence rejects and revises the Kalam definitions of knowledge as relation and as a property of the knower on the one hand, and the Avicennan notions of knowledge as abstraction and representation on the other. For Sadra, all these theories land us in a subjectivist theory of knowledge where the knowing subject is defined as the primary locus of all epistemic claims. To explore the possibilities of a 'non-subjectivist' epistemology, Sadra seeks to shift the focus from knowledge as a mental act of representation to knowledge as presence and unveiling. The concept of knowledge has occupied a central place in the Islamic intellectual tradition. While Muslim philosophers have adopted the Greek ideas of knowledge, they have also developed new approaches and broadened the study of knowledge. The challenge of reconciling revealed knowledge with unaided reason and intuitive knowledge has led to an extremely productive debate among Muslims intellectuals in the classical period. In a culture where knowledge has provided both spiritual perfection and social status, Muslim scholars have created a remarkable discourse of knowledge and vastly widened the scope of what it means to know. For Sadra, in knowing things, we unveil an aspect of existence and thus engage with the countless modalities and colours of the all-inclusive reality of existence. In such a framework, we give up the subjectivist claims of ownership of meaning. The intrinsic intelligibility of existence, an argument Sadra establishes through his elaborate ontology, strips the knowing subject of its privileged position of being the sole creator of meaning. Instead, meaning and intelligibility are defined as functions of existence to be deciphered and unveiled by the knowing subject. This leads to a redefinition of the relationship between subject and object or what Muslim philosophers call the knower and the known.

Metaphysics in Islamic Philosophy

A study of the concept of Being in Islamic philosophy, with special emphasis upon the contributions of Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd, & Mulla Sadra.

Author: Fadlou Shehadi

Publisher: Academic Resources Corp

ISBN: IND:39000002051899

Category: Philosophy

Page: 154

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A study of the concept of Being in Islamic philosophy, with special emphasis upon the contributions of Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd, & Mulla Sadra.

Reason Spirit and the Sacral in the New Enlightenment

Rationality in its various expressions and innumerable applications sustains understanding and our sense of reality.

Author: Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048196124

Category: Philosophy

Page: 207

View: 752

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Rationality in its various expressions and innumerable applications sustains understanding and our sense of reality. It is traditionally differentiated according to its sources in the soul: in consciousness, in reason, in experience, and in elevation. Such a functional approach, however, leaves us searching for the common foundation harmonizing these rationalities. The perennial quest to resolve the aporias of rationality is finding in contemporary science’s focus on origins, on the generative roots of reality, tantalizing hints as to how this may be accomplished. This project is enhanced by the wave of recent phenomenology/ontopoiesis of life, which reveals the workings of the logos at the root of beingness and all rationality, whereby we gaze upon the prospect of a New Enlightenment. In the rays of this vision the revival of the intuitions of classical Islamic metaphysics, particularly intuition of the continuity of beingness in the gradations of life, receive fresh confirmation.