Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics

This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

Author: Tobias Dörr

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889631520

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Bacterial cells are encased in a cell wall, which is required to maintain cell shape and to confer physical strength to the cell. The cell wall allows bacteria to cope with osmotic and environmental challenges and to secure cell integrity during all stages of bacterial growth and propagation, and thus has to be sufficiently rigid. Moreover, to accommodate growth processes, the cell wall at the same time has to be a highly dynamic structure: During cell enlargement, division, and differentiation, bacteria continuously remodel, degrade, and resynthesize their cell wall, but pivotally need to assure cell integrity during these processes. Finally, the cell wall is also adjusted according to both environmental constraints and metabolic requirements. However, how exactly this is achieved is not fully understood. The major structural component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), a mesh-like polymer of glycan chains interlinked by short-chain peptides, constituting a net-like macromolecular structure that has historically also termed murein or murein sacculus. Although the basic structure of PG is conserved among bacteria, considerable variations occur regarding cross-bridging, modifications, and attachments. Moreover, different structural arrangements of the cell envelope exist within bacteria: a thin PG layer sandwiched between an inner and outer membrane is present in Gram-negative bacteria, and a thick PG layer decorated with secondary glycopolymers including teichoic acids, is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, even more complex envelope structures exist, such as those found in mycobacteria. Crucially, all bacteria possess a multitude of often redundant lytic enzymes, termed “autolysins”, and other cell wall modifying and synthesizing enzymes, allowing to degrade and rebuild the various structures covering the cells. However, how cell wall turnover and cell wall biosynthesis are coordinated during different stages of bacterial growth is currently unclear. The mechanisms that prevent cell lysis during these processes are also unclear. This Research Topic focuses on the dynamics of the bacterial cell wall, its modifications, and structural rearrangements during cell growth and differentiation. It pays particular attention to the turnover of PG, its breakdown and recycling, as well as the regulation of these processes. Other structures, for example, secondary polymers such as teichoic acids, which are dynamically changed during bacterial growth and differentiation, are also covered. In recent years, our view on the bacterial cell envelope has undergone a dramatic change that challenged old models of cell wall structure, biosynthesis, and turnover. This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

The Bacterial Cell Wall

This book represents the second edition of a publication which was presented nearly 20 years ago in the German language (Die bakterielle Zellwand). Since that time our knowledge in this field has been significantly enlarged.

Author: Guntram Seltmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662048788

Category: Science

Page: 280

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The bacterial cell wall represents a very complex structure disconnecting the interior of single-cell organisms from the environment, thus protecting, but also enabling, them to interact with the surrounding milieu and to exchange both substances and information. Knowledge of the biochemistry of the cell wall (components) and the genetic background helps to understand their significance with regard to microbiology and immunology of bacteria. This book represents the second edition of a publication which was presented nearly 20 years ago in the German language (Die bakterielle Zellwand). Since that time our knowledge in this field has been significantly enlarged. Therefore, the manuscript had to be completely revised and updated. To maintain both the size and the introductory character of the book at least to a great extent, the authors had to restrict the presented material to that which appears basic and most important. This requirement must inevitably bring about many subjective factors. As pointed out in the first edition, the term cell wall was not taken too strictly. Since the constituents located outside the cytoplasmic membrane are frequently difficult to divide in structure, localisation, and/or function into true cell wall components and supplementary substances, they are all at least briefly mentioned.

Microbial Cell Walls and Membranes

Ultrastructure of bacterial envelopes; Isolation of walls and Membranes; Membrane structure and composition in micro-organisms; Membrane functions; Membranes of bacteria lacking peptidoglycan; Structure of peptidoglycan; Additional polymers ...

Author: Howard John Rogers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UOM:39076005046334

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 564

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Ultrastructure of bacterial envelopes; Isolation of walls and Membranes; Membrane structure and composition in micro-organisms; Membrane functions; Membranes of bacteria lacking peptidoglycan; Structure of peptidoglycan; Additional polymers in bacterial walls; Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan; Antibiotics affecting bacterial wall synthesis; Biosynthesis of other bacterial wall components; The bacterial autolysins; Cell walls of mycobacteria; Cell walls of filamentous fungi; Biosynthesis of wall components in yeast and filamentous fungi; The cell wall in the growth and cell division of bacteria.

Bacterial Cell Walls and Membranes

This book provides an up-to-date overview of the architecture and biosynthesis of bacterial and archaeal cell walls, highlighting the evolution-based similarities in, but also the intriguing differences between the cell walls of Gram ...

Author: Andreas Kuhn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030187682

Category: Science

Page: 501

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This book provides an up-to-date overview of the architecture and biosynthesis of bacterial and archaeal cell walls, highlighting the evolution-based similarities in, but also the intriguing differences between the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria, the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and the Archaea. The recent major advances in this field, which have brought to light many new structural and functional details, are presented and discussed. Over the past five years, a number of novel systems, e.g. for lipid, porin and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis have been described. In addition, new structural achievements with periplasmic chaperones have been made, all of which have revealed amazing details on how bacterial cell walls are synthesized. These findings provide an essential basis for future research, e.g. the development of new antibiotics. The book’s content is the logical continuation of Volume 84 of SCBI (on Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons), and sets the stage for upcoming volumes on Protein Complexes.

The Bacterial Cell Surface

Nowhere is this more evident than in the study of the surface layers of the bacterial cell.

Author: S.M. Hammond

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401165532

Category: Science

Page: 240

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It is a common statement that because of its simplicity the bacterial cell makes an ideal model for the study of a wide variety of biological systems and phenomena. While no-one would dispute that much of our under standing of biological function derives from the study of the humble bacterium, the concept of a simple life-form would be hotly disputed by any scientist engaged in the determination of the relationship between structure and function within the bacterial cell. Bacteria are particularly amenable to intensive study; their physiology can be probed with powerful biochemical, genetical and immunological techniques. Each piece of information obtained inevitably raises as many questions as answers, and can lead to a highly confused picture being presented to the lay reader. Nowhere is this more evident than in the study of the surface layers of the bacterial cell. Examination of the early electron micrographs suggested that the bacterial cytoplasm was surrounded by some sort of semi-rigid layer, possessing sufficient intrinsic strength to protect the organism from osmotic lysis. The belief that the surface layers were rather passive led to their neglect, while researchers concentrated on the superficially more exciting cytoplasmic components. Over the last twenty years our view of the bacterial envelope has undergone extensive revision, revealing a structure of enormous complexity.

Protein Secretion in Bacteria

This volume synthesizes the diversity of mechanisms of bacterial secretion across the microbial world into a digestible resource to stimulate new research, inspire continued identification and characterization of novel systems, and bring ...

Author: Maria Sandkvist

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781683670285

Category: Science

Page:

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Protein transport into and across membranes is a fundamental process in bacteria that touches upon and unites many areas of microbiology, including bacterial cell physiology, adhesion and motility, nutrient scavenging, intrabacterial signaling and social behavior, toxin deployment, interbacterial antagonism and collaboration, host invasion and disruption, and immune evasion. A broad repertoire of mechanisms and macromolecular machines are required to deliver protein substrates across bacterial cell membranes for intended effects. Some machines are common to most, if not all bacteria, whereas others are specific to Gram-negative or Gram-positive species or species with unique cell envelope properties such as members of Actinobacteria and Spirochetes. Protein Secretion in Bacteria, authored and edited by an international team of experts, draws together the many distinct functions and mechanisms involved in protein translocation in one concise tome. This comprehensive book presents updated information on all aspects of bacterial protein secretion encompassing: Individual secretory systems–Sec, Tat, and T1SS through the newly discovered T9SS Mechanisms, structures, and functions of bacterial secretion systems Lipoprotein sorting pathways, outer membrane vesicles, and the sortase system Structures and roles of surface organelles, including flagella, pili, and curli Emerging technologies and translational implications Protein Secretion in Bacteria serves as both an introductory guide for students and postdocs and a ready reference for seasoned researchers whose work touches on protein export and secretion. This volume synthesizes the diversity of mechanisms of bacterial secretion across the microbial world into a digestible resource to stimulate new research, inspire continued identification and characterization of novel systems, and bring about new ways to manipulate these systems for biotechnological, preventative, and therapeutic applications.

Archaeal Cell Envelope and Surface Structures

In the periplasmic space, ATP in the periplasmic space. Complementing this work, Kletzin provides an in-depth review of evolutionarily conserved and unique archaeal inner and outer membrane-associated cytochromes (7).

Author: Sonja-Verena Albers

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889197736

Category:

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Archaea and Bacteria have complex cell envelopes that play important roles in several vital cellular processes, including serving as a barrier that protects the cytoplasm from the environment. Along with associated proteinaceous structures, cell envelopes also ensure cell stability, promote motility, mediate adherence to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and facilitate communication with the extracellular environment. While some aspects of the biosynthesis and structure of the cell are similar to the three domains of life, archaeal cell envelopes exhibit several unique characteristics. Moreover, recent analyzes have revealed that many features of cell envelopes can vary greatly between distantly related archaea. The collection of reviews and original research papers in this focused issue describes research that has been significantly expanded in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and functions of archaeal cell envelopes and their constituent surface structures. Jain et al. (5) cytoplasmic membrane, isoprenoid lipid bilayer, as well as recently revealed the cytoplasmic membrane biosynthesis, which is conserved across the three domains of life. Complementing this review, Andreas Klingl summarizes the diverse structures and functions of archaeal cytoplasmic membranes (8). While most archaeal cells have a single membrane, the archaea have an outer membrane, which has been thought of in a different variety of archaeal lineages. One particular intriguing diderm is the hyperthermophilic archaeon. In the periplasmic space, ATP in the periplasmic space. Complementing this work, Kletzin provides an in-depth review of evolutionarily conserved and unique archaeal inner and outer membrane-associated cytochromes (7). The periplasmic space between the membranes of archaeal diderms does not contain a peptidoclycan layer. In fact, while the cytoplasmic membrane is superimposed by an S-layer in many monoderm archaea, it is unclear how diderms, and even some monoderm extremophiles that varnish to S-layer, withstand osmotic stress. As noted by Klingl (8), glycocalyx, lipoglycans, or other protective cell-associated glycoproteins, may take on the functions of a cell wall in some archaea. One such secreted protein, as described by Zenke et al., Is the halomucin of Haloquadratum walsbyi (15). While H. walsbyi does not have a cell wall, halomucine, an unusually large protein (9159aa), is thought to play an important role in protecting these extreme halophiles against desiccation. Interestingly, Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum, an uncultured diderm euryarchaeon, isolated from biofilms containing hammers, cell surface proteins with the appearance of grappling hooks that connect cells to each other and to abiotic surfaces. Perra's stunning imagery suggests that this is the case with the S-layer glycoproteins, possibly suggesting a case of divergent evolution (12). [0003] The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for the preparation of a medical device, Are conserved across the prokaryotic domains, being found in the majority of sequenced archaea, where, as in bacteria, they play key roles in processes necessary for biofilm formation (10, 13). Interestingly, as discussed by Albers and Jarrell (1), as well as Näther et al. (11), a type IV pilus-like structure is responsible for swimming motility in archaea. Many secreted proteins, including the S-layer glycoprotein and pilin-like proteins, are heavily post-translationally modified. [1]. [0002] The known proteolytic modifications of the proteins of the model haloarchaeon [1], vol. Using the results of proteomic studies, Leon et al. (9), providing an invaluable resource in silico prediction tools for the characterization of archaeal proteins, in general, but also specific phyla. Kandiba and Eichler review our current knowledge of N-glycosylation in archaea, including descriptions of the pathways the regulatory roles of this post-translational modification plays in cellular processes (6). Considering the unique aspects of the archaeal cell envelope, including not only the protein structures, but their post-translational modifications as well, it is not surprising that archaeal viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to infect and egress from archaeal cells, which are reviewed in this Issue by Quemin and Quax (14). Understanding the roles that can be seen in this book is a study of the development of biofuels in the field of bioinformatics, including mucosa-associated methanogenic archaea, can (2). (2) In this paper, Archaeal cell membranes and S-layer glycoproteins have been used to make liposomes and nanomaterials. Finally, a better understanding of the similarities and differences among the archaea as well as between the archaea and the other two domains will lead to the development of a more accurate phylogeny. In this issue, Forterre takes advantage of the latest profusion of genome studies, along with supporting in vivo work, to assemble an improved tree of life (3). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that this is not the case. Acknowledgments The support of the National Science Foundation MCB-1413158 to MP and the ERC starting grant 311523 (archaellum) to SA are gratefully acknowledged. References: 1. Albers SV & Jarrell KF (2015) The archaellum: how Archaea swim. Frontiers in microbiology 6:23. 2. Bang C, et al. (2014) Biofilm formation of mucosa-associated methanoarchaeal strains. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 353. 3. Forterre P (2015) The Universal Tree: an update. Frontiers in Microbiology, in 4. Gimenez MI, Cerletti M, & De Castro RE (2015) Archaeal membrane-associated proteases: insights on Haloferax volcanii and other haloarchaea. Frontiers in microbiology 6:39. 5. Jain S, Caforio A, & Driessen AJ (2014) Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 641. 6. Kandiba L & Eichler J (2014) Archaeal S-layer glycoproteins: post-translational modification in the face of extremes. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 661. 7. Kletzin A, et al. (2015) Cytochromes c in Archaea: distribution, maturation, cell architecture, and the special case of Ignicoccus hospitalis. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 439. 8. Klingl A (2014) S-layer and cytoplasmic membrane - exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 624. 9. Leon DR, et al. (2015) Mining proteomic data to expose protein modifications to methanosarcina mazei strain Go1. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 149. 10. Losensky G, Vidakovic L, Klingl A, Pfeifer F, & Frols S (2014) Novel pili-like surface structures of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1 are crucial for surface adhesion. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 755. 11. Nather-Schindler DJ, Schopf S, Bellack A, Rachel R, & Wirth R (2014) Pyrococcus furiosus flagella: biochemical and transcriptional analyzes identify the newly detected flaB0 gene to encode the major flagellin. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 695. 12. Perras AK, et al. (2015) S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 543. 13. Pohlschroder M & Esquivel RN (2015) Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation. Frontiers in microbiology 6:19. 14. Quemin ER & Quax TE (2015) Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 552. 15. Zenke R, et al. (2015) fluorescence microscopy visualization of halomucin, a secreted 927 kDa protein surrounding haloquadratum walsbyi cells. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 249.

Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Layers

Crystalline surface layers (S-layers) represent an almost universal feature of archaebacterial cell envelopes and can be found in gram-positive and gram-negative eubacterial species from nearly all phylogenetic branches.

Author: Uwe B. Sleytr

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642735370

Category: Science

Page: 193

View: 126

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Crystalline surface layers (S-layers) represent an almost universal feature of archaebacterial cell envelopes and can be found in gram-positive and gram-negative eubacterial species from nearly all phylogenetic branches. S-layers consist of a single protein- or glycoprotein species and thus can be considered as one of the most primitive membrane structures developed during evolution. Prokaryotes carrying S-layers are ubiquitously found in every part of the biosphere. This supports the concept of a general supramolecular "porous crystalline surface layer" fulfilling a broad spectrum of functions which are strongly dependent on the particular environmental and ecological conditions. Their structural simplicity makes S-layers a suitable model for analyzing structure-function relationships as well as dynamic aspects of membrane morphogenesis.