Meaning and Normativity

This new book integrates his expressivism for normative language with a theory of how the meaning of meaning could be normative.

Author: Allan Gibbard

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191664441

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

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What does talk of meaning mean? All thinking consists in natural happenings in the brain. Talk of meaning though, has resisted interpretation in terms of anything that is clearly natural, such as linguistic dispositions. This, Kripke's Wittgenstein suggests, is because the concept of meaning is normative, on the 'ought' side of Hume's divide between is and ought. Allan Gibbard's previous books Wise Choices, Apt Feelings and Thinking How to Live treated normative discourse as a natural phenomenon, but not as describing the world naturalistically. His theory is a form of expressivism for normative concepts, holding, roughly, that normative statements express states of planning. This new book integrates his expressivism for normative language with a theory of how the meaning of meaning could be normative. The result applies to itself: metaethics expands to address key topics in the philosophy of language, topics which in turn include core parts of metaethics. An upshot is to lessen the contrast between expressivism and nonnaturalism: in their strongest forms, the two converge in all their theses. Still, they differ in the explanations they give. Nonnaturalists' explanations mystify, whereas expressivists render normative thinking intelligible as something to expect from beings like us, complexly social products of natural selection who talk with each other.

Normativity Meaning and the Promise of Phenomenology

talk of normativity, it is necessary to look closely at the work of Steven Crowell,
whose position best represents an effort to develop and extend the
phenomenological thesis about the space of meaning to the domain of
normativity. However ...

Author: Matthew Burch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351064408

Category: Philosophy

Page: 358

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The aim of this volume is to critically assess the philosophical importance of phenomenology as a method for studying the normativity of meaning and its transcendental conditions. Using the pioneering work of Steven Crowell as a springboard, phenomenologists from all over the world examine the promise of phenomenology for illuminating long-standing problems in epistemology, the philosophy of mind, action theory, the philosophy of religion, and moral psychology. The essays are unique in that they engage with the phenomenological tradition not as a collection of authorities to whom we must defer, or a set of historical artifacts we must preserve, but rather as a community of interlocutors with views that bear on important issues in contemporary philosophy. The book is divided into three thematic sections, each examining different clusters of issues aimed at moving the phenomenological project forward. The first section explores the connection between normativity and meaning, and asks us to rethink the relation between the factual realm and the categories of validity in terms of which things can show up as what they are. The second section examines the nature of the self that is capable of experiencing meaning. It includes essays on intentionality, agency, consciousness, naturalism, and moral normativity. The third section addresses questions of philosophical methodology, examining if and why phenomenology should have priority in the analysis of meaning. Finally, the book concludes with an afterword written by Steven Crowell. Normativity, Meaning, and the Promise of Phenomenology will be a key resource for students and scholars interested in the phenomenological tradition, the transcendental tradition from Kant to Davidson, and existentialism. Additionally, its forward-looking focus yields crucial insights into pressing philosophical problems that will appeal to scholars working across all areas of the discipline.

Naturalism and Normativity

nature that inform the interpreters' understanding of what Wittgenstein means
when he appeals to our natural responses ... The aim is to show how normative
talk of meaning and intentional states can be grounded in the mere contingent
fact of ...

Author: Mario De Caro

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231508872

Category: Philosophy

Page: 376

View: 943

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Normativity concerns what we ought to think or do and the evaluations we make. For example, we say that we ought to think consistently, we ought to keep our promises, or that Mozart is a better composer than Salieri. Yet what philosophical moral can we draw from the apparent absence of normativity in the scientific image of the world? For scientific naturalists, the moral is that the normative must be reduced to the nonnormative, while for nonnaturalists, the moral is that there must be a transcendent realm of norms. Naturalism and Normativity engages with both sides of this debate. Essays explore philosophical options for understanding normativity in the space between scientific naturalism and Platonic supernaturalism. They articulate a liberal conception of philosophy that is neither reducible to the sciences nor completely independent of them yet one that maintains the right to call itself naturalism. Contributors think in new ways about the relations among the scientific worldview, our experience of norms and values, and our movements in the space of reason. Detailed discussions include the relationship between philosophy and science, physicalism and ontological pluralism, the realm of the ordinary, objectivity and subjectivity, truth and justification, and the liberal naturalisms of Donald Davidson, John Dewey, John McDowell, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Logic Thought and Language

The Normativity of Meaning ALAN MILLAR 1 . The topic In a ... One could sum up
the assumption about meaning which appears to underpin this criticism of
dispositional theories in terms of the slogan that meaning is normative . Allan
Gibbard ...

Author: Anthony O'Hear

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521529662

Category: Philosophy

Page: 346

View: 221

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Publisher Description

Mind Meaning and Knowledge

More specifically, if, as Grice shows, intentions are deeply involved in meaning,
what I want to explore is the extent to which the normative nature of intentions
imparts, or is of a piece with, the alleged normativity of meaning. What is often
said ...

Author: Annalisa Coliva

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199278053

Category: Philosophy

Page: 494

View: 113

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Thirteen leading experts in the field discuss some of the major themes in the philosophy of one of Great Britain's most important living philosophers. The articles address issues such as the rule-following problem, knowledge of our meanings and minds, truth, realism, anti-realism and relativism, as well as the nature of perceptual justification, the cogency of arguments such as G. E. Moore's celebrated proof of an external world, and scepticism about the materialworld. The volume also includes a substantial Introduction, which places the essays in the context of the development of Wright's ideas, and contains Wright's substantial responses to his critics,which offer the most up-to-date version of his ideas and a vigorous defence of his philosophy. This is a compulsory read for anyone interested in Wright's ideas and in contemporary issues in philosophy of language, mind, metaphysics, and epistemology.

Information and Meaning in Evolutionary Processes

It would seem, then, that even short of dispensing the sort of advice that
normative theorists intend, there remains for the ... The mystery comes in
because if meaning and normativity do exist in physical terms, we have no idea
what they are.

Author: William F. Harms

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139451626

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 316

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This book is intended to help transform epistemology - the traditional study of knowledge - into a rigorous discipline by removing conceptual roadblocks and developing formal tools required for a fully naturalized epistemology. The evolutionary approach which Harms favours begins with the common observation that if our senses and reasoning were not reliable, then natural selection would have eliminated them long ago. The challenge for some time has been how to transform these informal musings about evolutionary epistemology into a rigorous theoretical discipline capable of complementing current scientific studies of the evolution of cognition with a philosophically defensible account of meaning and justification.

Normativity and Legitimacy

NORMATIVITY AND MEANING EVA PICARDI University of Bologna In his recent
article " Language and Nature " Chomsky suggests that the time has come to
broaden the scope of naturalized epistemology in such a way that it will comprise
 ...

Author: Riccardo Dottori

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 382585017X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 348

View: 800

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" This volume contains the Proceedings of the Second Meeting Italian-American Philosophy, that took place in New York from 12 to 15 October 1999, together with two contributions given during the First Meeting. It is the first volume of a Yearbook for Philosophical Hermeneutics, The Dialogue, actually aiming to promote the dialogue between analytic and hermeneutic philosophy. Normativity and legitimacy are the two key concepts which have been at the base of the confrontation between the thought of the Frankfurt School and most of the American philosophy. They can offer the possibility for further discussions and developments within the fields of aesthetics, logic, and language philosophy, epistemology, ethics, philosophy of law and politics. They also represent the ground on which the two different aspects of contemporary philosophy, that one of hermeneutic dealing with historical legitimacy, and the one of analytics dealing with rational determination of norms, could together establish a productive dialogue. "

The Oxford Handbook of Reasons and Normativity

This Handbook maps a central terrain of philosophy, and provides the definitive guide to it.

Author: Daniel Star

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199657889

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1084

View: 510

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'The Oxford Handbook of Reasons and Normativity' contains 44 commissioned chapters on a wide range of topics, and will appeal to readers with an interest in ethics or epistemology. A diverse selection of substantive positions are defended by leading proponents of the views in question, and provide broad coverage of the study of reasons and normativity across multiple philosophical subfields. In addition to focusing on reasons as part of the study of ethics and as part of the study of epistemology (as well as focusing on reasons as part of the study of the philosophy of language and as part of the study of the philosophy of mind), the Handbook covers recent developments concerning the nature of normativity in general. A number of the contributions to the Handbook explicitly address such "metanormative" issues, bridging subfields as they do so. --

The Normative Claim of Law

The first step concerns a semantic or definitional question, in that the content of
the normative claim depends on the way its meaning is defined. This is
preliminary to the second and third steps, which concern what I will call a
metaphysical or ...

Author: Stefano Bertea

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781847315434

Category: Law

Page: 316

View: 172

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This book focuses on a specific component of the normative dimension of law, namely, the normative claim of law. By 'normative claim' we mean the claim that inherent in the law is an ability to guide action by generating practical reasons having a special status. The thesis that law lays the normative claim has become a subject of controversy: it has its defenders, as well as many scholars of different orientations who have acknowledged the normative claim of law without making a point of defending it head-on. It has also come under attack from other contemporary legal theorists, and around the normative claim a lively debate has sprung up. This debate makes up the main subject of this book, which is in essence an attempt to account for the normative claim and see how its recognition moulds our understanding of the law itself. This involves (a) specifying the exact content, boundaries, quality, and essential traits of the normative claim, (b) explaining how the law can make a claim so specified, and (c) justifying why this should happen in the first place. The argument is set out in two stages, corresponding to the two parts in which the book is divided. In the first part, the author introduces and discusses the meaning, status, and fundamental traits of the normative claim of law; in the second he explores some foundational questions and determines the grounds of the normative claim of law by framing an account that elaborates on some contemporary discussions of Kant's conception of humanity as the source of the normativity of practical reason.

Philosophy the Good the True and the Beautiful

Norms of Truth and Meaning PAUL HORWICH wate1 It is widely held that the
normativity of truth and meaning puts a severe constraint on acceptable theories
of these phenomena . This constraint is so severe , some would say , as to rule
out ...

Author: Professor of Philosophy Anthony O'Hear

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521785111

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

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Considers the role of values in truth seeking, in morality, in aesthetics and also in the spiritual life.

What is Truth

Norms of Truth and Meaning PAUL Hommcn It is widely held that the 'normativity'
of truth and meaning puts a severe ... view of truth and the use-regularity
conception of meaning, insofar as they are articulated in entirely non-normative
terms, ...

Author: Richard Schantz

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110886665

Category: Philosophy

Page: 346

View: 653

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In this collection of original papers, leading international authorities turn their attention to one of the most important questions in theoretical philosophy: what is truth? To arrive at an answer, two further questions need to be addressed in this context: 1) Does truth possess any essence, any inner nature? and 2) If so, what does this nature consist of? The present discussion focuses on the antagonism between substantial or robust theories of truth, with correspondence theory taking the lead, and deflationist or minimalist views, which have been commanding an increasing amount of attention in recent years. Whereas substantial theories proceed from the premise that truth has an essence, and that therefore the objective is to discover this essence, the challenge presented by deflationism is to dispense with this very premise.

Games Norms and Reasons

Why. Meanings. Are. Not. Normative. Akeel Bilgrami 1. This paper is a response
prompted by a dissatisfaction with the ... of meaning and normativity following the
publication of Kripke's book on Wittgenstein's discussion of rule-following.

Author: Johan van Benthem

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400707142

Category: Philosophy

Page: 232

View: 443

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Games, Norms, and Reasons: Logic at the Crossroads provides an overview of modern logic focusing on its relationships with other disciplines, including new interfaces with rational choice theory, epistemology, game theory and informatics. This book continues a series called "Logic at the Crossroads" whose title reflects a view that the deep insights from the classical phase of mathematical logic can form a harmonious mixture with a new, more ambitious research agenda of understanding and enhancing human reasoning and intelligent interaction. The editors have gathered together articles from active authors in this new area that explore dynamic logical aspects of norms, reasons, preferences and beliefs in human agency, human interaction and groups. The book pays a special tribute to Professor Rohit Parikh, a pioneer in this movement.

The Unity of Wittgenstein s Philosophy

normativity will try to meet both the relativist challenge (as posed by Blackburn)
and the quietist challenge (as posed by Minar). ... For Minar, to say that
Wittgenstein's elucidations of meaning and normativity in terms of ordinary
practices of use ...

Author: Jose Medina

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 079145388X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 233

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Explores the stable core of Wittgenstein's philosophy as developed from the Tractatus to the Philosophical Investigations.

Meaning

I shall not be denying that language is pervaded with normativity — with oughts
and ought nots. But I think these phenomena can be explained without having to
suppose that truth and meaning are intrinsically normative notions. What I shall ...

Author: Paul Horwich

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191574007

Category: Philosophy

Page: 254

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What is meaning? Paul Horwich presents an original philosophical theory, demonstrates its richness, and defends it against all comers. At the core of his theory is the idea, made famous by Wittgenstein, that the meaning of a word derives from its use; Horwich articulates this idea in a new way that will restore it to the prominence that it deserves. He surveys the diversity of valuable insights into meaning that have been gained in the twentieth century, and seeks to accommodate them within his theory. His aim is not to correct a common-sense view of meaning, but to vindicate it: he seeks to take the mystery out of meaning. Horwich's 1990 book Truth established itself both as the definitive exposition and defence of a notable philosophical theory, `minimalism', and as a stimulating, straightforward introduction to philosophical debate about truth. Meaning now gives the broader context in which the theory of truth operates, and is published simultaneously with a revised edition of Truth, in which Horwich refines and develops his treatment of the subject in the light of subsequent discussions, while preserving the distinctive format which made the book so successful. The two books together present a compelling view of the relations between language, thought, and reality. They will be essential reading for all philosophers of language.

The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Language

[Defends the view that meaning is normative.] Boghossian, P. (2003), “The
Normativity of Content”, Philosophical Issues 13, 31–45, [Rejects the author's
earlier view that linguistic meaning is normative and argues that the normativity of
mental ...

Author: Manuel Garcia-Carpintero

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781472578228

Category: Philosophy

Page: 293

View: 854

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Beginning with works of Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein, The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Language provides a critical history of the core concepts in the area. From generative syntax and formal semantics to broader philosophical issues such as intentional contexts, theories of meaning and context dependence, a well-known team of experts offer insightful analysis into some of the fundamental questions asked by the philosophy of language. The result is a comprehensive introduction, featuring a series of research tools, including an A to Z of key terms and concepts, a detailed list of resources and a fully annotated bibliography. For students and scholars looking to better understand the questions and debates informing the subject, this is an essential study tool.

Semantics and Beyond

Keywords: normativity of meaning and content, normative guidance, prescription,
reasons, Kathrin Glüer, Åsa Wikforss 0. Introduction It is widely held that an
especially powerful argument against the thesis that lexical meaning is normative
, ...

Author: Piotr Stalmaszczyk

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110362480

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

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Papers in the collection concentrate on different issues relevant for contemporary research within semantics, such as the linguistic and philosophical status of representations, reference theory and indexicals, situation semantics, formal semantics, normativity of meaning and speech acts, and different approaches to context and contextualism. The authors investigate the links between semantics and syntax, and between semantics, pragmatics, and speech act theory, and demonstrate that it is possible to integrate findings from different disciplines. Recent studies often advocate a ‘pragmatic turn’ in the study of meaning and context; however, the papers in the volume show that semantics and meaning remain in the center of research carried out within contemporary linguistics and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language. The volume includes contributions by: Brian Ball (St Anne’s College, Oxford), John Collins (University of East Anglia), Luis Fernández Moreno (Complutense University of Madrid), Chris Fox (University of Essex), Filip Kawczyński (University of Warsaw), Katarzyna Kijania-Placek (Jagiellonian University), Joanna Klimczyk (Polish Academy of Sciences), Paul Livingston (University of New Mexico), Mark Pinder (University of Bristol), Ernesto Perini-Santos (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), Tabea Reiner (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich), Stefan Riegelnik (University of Zurich), Arthur Sullivan (Memorial University of Newfoundland), Massimiliano Vignolo (University of Genoa), and Marián Zouhar (Slovak Academy of Sciences). The volume should be of interest to linguists, philosophers of language, and philosophers in general.

New Essays on the Normativity of Law

Legal. Normativity. and. the. Instrumental. Principle. Katrien SchaubroecK ... over
you? in other words, is law normative? three preliminary remarks should shed
light on the meaning and significance of the normative question as applied to law
.

Author: Stefano Bertea

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781847316714

Category: Law

Page: 336

View: 980

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An important part of the legal domain has to do with rule-governed conduct, and is expressed by the use of notions such as norm, obligation, duty and right. These require us to acknowledge the normative dimension of law. Normativity is, accordingly, to be regarded as a central feature of law lying at the heart of any comprehensive legal-theoretical project. The essays collected in this book are meant to further our understanding of the normativity of law. More specifically, the book stages a thorough discussion of legal normativity as approached from three strands of legal thought that are particularly influential and which play a key role in shaping debates on the normative dimension of law: the theory of planning agency, legal conventionalism and the constitutivist approach. While the essays presented here do not aspire to give an exhaustive picture of these debates - an aspiration that would be, by its very nature, unrealistic - they do provide the reader with some authoritative statements of some widely discussed families of views of legal normativity. In pursuing this objective, these essays also encourage a dialogue between different traditions of study of legal normativity, stimulating those who would not otherwise look outside their tradition of thought to engage with new ideas and, ultimately, to arrive at a more comprehensive account of the normativity of law.

The Normativity of Nature

Originally published in Meaning and Interpretation, ed. Charles Travis (Oxford
and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 275–97. 19 Following W. V. Quine
(The Roots of Reference (La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1974), 16–18), we can ...

Author: Hannah Ginsborg

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191030796

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 554

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Most philosophers have taken the importance of Kant's Critique of Judgement to lie primarily in its contributions to aesthetics and to the philosophy of biology. Hannah Ginsborg, however, sees the Critique of Judgement as representing a central contribution to the understanding of human cognition more generally. The fourteen essays collected here advance a common interpretive project: that of bringing out the philosophical significance of the notion of judgement which figures in the third Critique and showing its importance both to Kant's own theoretical philosophy and to contemporary views of human thought and cognition. To possess the capacity of judgment, on the interpretation presented here, is to respond to the world in a way which involves the recognition of one's responses as normatively appropriate to the objects which cause them. It is through this capacity that we are able not merely to respond discriminatively to objects, as animals do, but to bring them under concepts and so to make claims about them which can be true or false. The Critique of Judgement, on this reading, rejects the traditional dichotomy between the natural and the normative, taking nature itself both human nature and nature outside us to be comprehensible only in normative terms. The essays in this book develop this reading in its own right, and draw on it to address interpretive debates in Kant's aesthetics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of biology. They also bring out its relevance to contemporary debates about concept-acquisition, the content of perception, and skepticism about rule-following and meaning.

Normativity and Naturalism

“(G)ood does not, by definition, mean anything that is natural; and it is therefore
always an open question whether ... nor even that the term “good” cannot have
the same meaning as a term which refers to a natural property (see Brink 1989, p.

Author: Peter Schaber

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110327694

Category: Philosophy

Page: 250

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At the centre of the metaethical debate that took off from G.E. Moore's Principia Ethica (1903) was his critique of ethical naturalism. While Moore's own arguments against ethical naturalism find little acceptance these days, an alternative ground for thinking that ethical properties and facts could not be natural has gained prominence: No natural account can be given of normativity. This collection contains original essays from both sides of the debate. Representing a wide range of metaethical views, the authors develop diverse accounts of normativity and discuss what it means for a concept to be natural. Contributions are by Norbert Anwander, David Copp, Neil Roughley, Peter Schaber, Thomas Schmidt, Tatjana Tarkian, and Theo van Willigenburg.