In the Name of Eugenics

Daniel Kevles traces the study and practice of eugenics--the science of "improving" the human species by exploiting theories of heredity--from its inception in the late nineteenth century to its most recent manifestation within the field of ...

Author: Daniel J. Kevles

Publisher: Knopf

ISBN: 9780307831507

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 749


Daniel Kevles traces the study and practice of eugenics--the science of "improving" the human species by exploiting theories of heredity--from its inception in the late nineteenth century to its most recent manifestation within the field of genetic engineering. It is rich in narrative, anecdote, attention to human detail, and stories of competition among scientists who have dominated the field.

The Baltimore Case

An analysis of the case of David Baltimore, a medical scientist whose academic leadership became the target of a political inquiry that derailed his promising career

Author: Daniel J. Kevles

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393319709

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 324


An analysis of the case of David Baltimore, a medical scientist whose academic leadership became the target of a political inquiry that derailed his promising career

Eugenics and the Welfare State

Graham, L. "Science and Values: The Eugenics Movement in Germany and Russia in the 1920s." American Historical Review 52 (1977). Kevles, D. J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ...

Author: Gunnar Broberg


ISBN: UOM:39015036082686

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 257


The history of sterilization in the Nordic countries shows the interaction between science, political ideology, and the development of social policy.

The Human Gene Editing Debate

Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). ... Daniel Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of ...

Author: John H. Evans

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780197519578

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 621


In 2018 the first genetically modified babies were reportedly born in China, made possible by the invention of CRISPR technology in 2012. This controversial advancement overturned the pre-existing moral consensus, which had held for over fifty years before: while gene editing an adult person was morally acceptable, modifying babies, and thus subsequent generations, crossed a significant moral line. If this line is passed over, scientists will be left without an agreed-upon ethical limit. What do we do now? John H. Evans here provides a meta-level guide to how these debates move forward and their significance to society. He explains how the bioethical debate has long been characterized as a slippery slope, with consensually ethical use at the top, nightmarish dystopia at the bottom, and specific agreed-upon limits in between, which draw the lines between the ethical and the unethical. Evans frames his analysis around these limits, or barriers. Historically they have existed to guide scientists and to prevent the debate from slipping down the metaphorical slope into unacceptable eugenicist possibilities, such as in Aldous Huxley's novel Brave New World or the movie Gattaca. Evans examines the history of how barriers were placed, then fell, then replaced by new ones, and discusses how these insights inform where the debate may head. He evaluates other proposed barriers relevant to where we are now, projects that most of the barriers suggested by scientists and bioethicists will not hold, and cautiously identifies a few that could serve as the moral boundary for the next generation. At a critical time in this new era of intervention in the human genome, The Human Gene Editing Debate provides a necessary, comprehensive analysis of the conversation's direction, past, present, and future.

The Politics of Heredity

Curt Stern , Principles of Human Genetics ( San Francisco : W. H. Freeman , 1949 ) , p . 603 . 25. I say " broadly defined " because genetics has ... On developments in human cytogenetics , see Daniel J. Kevles , In the Name of Eugenics ...

Author: Diane B. Paul

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 079143821X

Category: Medical

Page: 219

View: 998


Explores the political forces underlying shifts in thinking about the respective influence of heredity and environment in shaping human behavior, and the feasibility and morality of eugenics.

Research Ethics

of Daniel Kevles , In the Name of Eugenics : Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity ( see below ) . Generally positive review of Kevles's historical treatment of eugenics , particularly his consideration of how that history can inform ...

Author: Robin Levin Penslar

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253209064

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 278

View: 854


"The book provides opportunities for unusually good discussions of ethical problems that can confront researchers in any field." —Religious Studies Review "... this book provides a ready-made package for the teaching of ethics in research." —Journal of Third World Studies "... Research Ethics is an extremely useful and stimulating book... recommended for wide classroom use on both the undergraduate and graduate level as well as for all academic library collections." —Journal of Information Ethics "... an excellent introduction into research ethics." —Journal of College Science Teaching "A useful supplement to faculty teaching courses on scientific ethics and a resource for instructors who give lectures on the topic in more general courses." —Robert L. Sprague, Director, Institute for Research on Human Development "This book is important because it defines and clarifies subtle ethical issues present but not necessarily easily recognizable as such in the everyday conduct of research."Â —Doody's Health Sciences Book Review Journal "A very useful text for courses dealing with ethics in the research setting." —Science, Technology & Society "... a welcome collection of materials that can be used in a variety of ways by those who are genuinely concerned that scientific research remain faithful to its ideals." —American Journal of Human Genetics "This clearly written, reader-friendly book addresses the need for systematic education in research ethics and suggests that researchers themselves are the best teachers for their students.... The scenarios are realistic..., well presented, and organized around a series of topics that are both diverse and relevant to the practicing investigator."Â —American Journal of Psychiatry "... a landmark teaching tool... " —Science Books & Films [an "Editor's Choice" book] "I think this book is an excellent introduction into research ethics. The material is presented in an exceptionally thought-provoking manner, and it serves as a reference guide and as a source for seminar topics" —Robert H. Tamarin, Journal of College Science Teaching This comprehensive casebook for teaching research ethics in the sciences and the humanities covers such topics as plagiarism, confidentiality, conflict of interest, fraud and misconduct, the reporting of data, and the participation of human and animal subjects in research. An annotated bibliography will help instructors identify resources to use as supplements to cases, assist readers who are developing courses in research ethics, and aid further research on the subject.

Culture of Death

111 Peter J. Neumann and Milton C. Weinstein, “Legislating against Use of CostEffectiveness Information,” New England Journal of ... 2 Daniel V. Kelves, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Cambridge, ...

Author: Wesley J. Smith

Publisher: Encounter Books

ISBN: 9781594038563

Category: Medical

Page: 360

View: 150


When his teenage son Christopher, brain-damaged in an auto accident, developed a 105-degree fever following weeks of unconsciousness, John Campbell asked the attending physician for help. The doctor refused. Why bother? The boy’s life was effectively over. Campbell refused to accept this verdict. He demanded treatment and threatened legal action. The doctor finally relented. With treatment, Christopher’s temperature—which had eventually reached 107.6 degrees—subsided almost immediately. Soon afterward the boy regained consciousness and was learning to walk again. This story is one of many Wesley J. Smith recounts in his award-winning classic critique of the modern bioethics movement, Culture of Death. In this newly updated edition, Smith chronicles how the threats to the equality of human life have accelerated in recent years, from the proliferation of euthanasia and the Brittany Maynard assisted suicide firestorm, to the potential for “death panels” posed by Obamacare and the explosive Terri Schiavo controversy. Culture of Death reveals how more and more doctors have withdrawn from the Hippocratic Oath and how “bioethicists” influence policy by posing questions such as whether organs may be harvested from the terminally ill and disabled. This is a passionate yet coolly reasoned book about the current crisis in medical ethics by an author who has made “the new thanatology” his consuming interest.

Pragmatism and Human Genetic Engineering

Darwinian thought also catalyzed the application of Mendelian and Miescherian genetics to human heredity. Application of the Study of Human Heredity Eugenics One immediate implication of Darwin's interdisciplinary research on genetics ...

Author: Glenn McGee

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 9781581120202

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 887


William James and John Dewey insisted that pragmatic philosophy finds meaning in its struggle to deal with emergent social problems. Ironically, few have attempted to use pragmatism to articulate methods for ameliorating social difficulties. This dissertation attempts to do just that by putting James' and Dewey's philosophy to work on the moral and scientific problems associated with genetic engineering and the Human Genome Project. The intention is to demonstrate the usefulness of a pragmatic approach to applied ethics and philosophy of biology. The work of proponents and critics of genetic engineering is examined, including LeRoy Hood, Hans Jonas, Leon Kass, Robert Nozick, Jeremy Rifkin, Robyn Rowland, and Paul Ramsey. It is concluded that excessive optimism and pessimism about genetic engineering rests primarily on two errors. The first, basic to the Genome Project, is that organisms are essentially determined by their genes, and that the expression of genes is identical across human populations. I draw both on Richard Lewontin and on Dewey's Logic: The Theory of Inquiry to argue that the formation of human natures is instead the result of a fluid and interpenetrative relationship between hereditary information and varying environmental conditions. Organisms express DNA in different ways under different circumstances, and DNA itself is modified by exposure to mutagens. The second error prevalent in the literature is the belief that genetic engineering is uniquely problematic, requiring a new kind of ethics. To counter the received view, I detail numerous cases in the history of biology and philosophy in which humans have faced moral choices similar to those present in the new genetics. In addition, I resituate new reproductive decisions in the context of everyday problems faced by parents in society, arguing that the hopes and choices of parents provide a matrix within which genetic decisions can be made. I caution against the expansion of genetic diagnosis, and detail some of the greatest real dangers present in positive genetic engineering. Finally, I suggest pragmatic alternatives to positive genetic engineering, including education and health care reform.

Decoding Racial Ideology in Genomics

Dunn and Dobzhansky, Heredity, Race, and Society, 114. 22. Graves, The Race Myth: Why We Pretend Race Exists in America, 4. 23. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity, 46. 24. Kevles, In the Name of ...

Author: Johnny E. Williams

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739148976

Category: Social Science

Page: 190

View: 223


Although the human genome exists apart from society, knowledge about it is produced through socially-created language and interactions. As such, genomicists’ thinking is informed by their inability to escape the wake of the ‘race’ concept. This book investigates how racism makes genomics and how genomics makes racism and ‘race,’ and the consequences of these constructions. Specifically, Williams explores how racial ideology works in genomics. The simple assumption that frames the book is that ‘race’ as an ideology justifying a system of oppression is persistently recreated as a practical and familiar way to understand biological reality. This book reveals that genomicists’ preoccupation with ‘race’—regardless of good or ill intent—contributes to its perception as a category of differences that is scientifically rigorous.

Human Heredity in the Twentieth Century

73–4; D. J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Use of Human Heredity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985). 2. For examples, see the contributions of Bernd Gausemeier and Jenny Bangham in this volume. 3. 10. 11.

Author: Bernd Gausemeier

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317319214

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 167


The essays in this collection examine how human heredity was understood between the end of the First World War and the early 1970s. The contributors explore the interaction of science, medicine and society in determining how heredity was viewed across the world during the politically turbulent years of the twentieth century.