Ground Penetrating Radar Theory and Applications

Bourgeois, J.M. and Smith, G.S., 1996, A fully three-dimensional simulation of a ground-penetrating radar: FDTD theory compared with experiment. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 36–44.

Author: Harry M. Jol

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080951848

Category: Science

Page: 544

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Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a rapidly developing field that has seen tremendous progress over the past 15 years. The development of GPR spans aspects of geophysical science, technology, and a wide range of scientific and engineering applications. It is the breadth of applications that has made GPR such a valuable tool in the geophysical consulting and geotechnical engineering industries, has lead to its rapid development, and inspired new areas of research in academia. The topic of GPR has gone from not even being mentioned in geophysical texts ten years ago to being the focus of hundreds of research papers and special issues of journals dedicated to the topic. The explosion of primary literature devoted to GPR technology, theory and applications, has lead to a strong demand for an up-to-date synthesis and overview of this rapidly developing field. Because there are specifics in the utilization of GPR for different applications, a review of the current state of development of the applications along with the fundamental theory is required. This book will provide sufficient detail to allow both practitioners and newcomers to the area of GPR to use it as a handbook and primary research reference. *Review of GPR theory and applications by leaders in the field *Up-to-date information and references *Effective handbook and primary research reference for both experienced practitioners and newcomers

Ground Penetrating Radar

189–194 [2] COOK and BERNFELD: 'Radar signals, an introduction to theory and application'. ISBN 0-89006-733-3 (Artech House), p. 9 [3] SKOLNIK,M.:'Radarhandbook, 2nd edition'.ISBN0-07057913-X,(McGraw- Hill), Chap.

Author: David J. Daniels

Publisher: IET

ISBN: 9780863413605

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 754

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This book describes the key elements of the subject of surface penetrating radar, and in general terms the inter-relationship between those topics in electromagnetism, soil science, geophysics and signal processing which form part of its design.

Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

IEE Radar, Sonar, Navigation and Avionics Series, 2nd edn. pp. 131–183. The Institution of Engineering and Technology (2004) Daniels, D.J.: Antennas. Chap. 4 In: Ground Penetrating Radar Theory and Applications, pp. 99–133.

Author: Andrea Benedetto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319048130

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 836

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This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges and tunnels and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, non destructive and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagnostics relevant to the entire life cycle of civil engineering works.

Advances in Near surface Seismology and Ground penetrating Radar Volume 15

Bradford, J. H., 2007, Frequency-dependent attenuation analysis of ground-penetrating radar data: Geophysics, 72, no. 3, J7–J16. Bradford, J. H., and J. C. Deeds, 2006, Ground-penetrating radar theory and application of thin-bed ...

Author: Richard D. Miller

Publisher: SEG Books

ISBN: 9781560802242

Category: Science

Page: 541

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Advances in Near-surface Seismology and Ground-penetrating Radar (SEG Geophysical Developments Series No. 15) is a collection of original papers by renowned and respected authors from around the world. Technologies used in the application of near-surface seismology and ground-penetrating radar have seen significant advances in the last several years. Both methods have benefited from new processing tools, increased computer speeds, and an expanded variety of applications. This book, divided into four sections--"Reviews," "Methodology," "Integrative Approaches," and "Case Studies"--Captures the most significant cutting-edge issues in active areas of research, unveiling truly pertinent studies that address fundamental applied problems. This collection of manuscripts grew from a core group of papers presented at a post-convention workshop, "Advances in Near-surface Seismology and Ground-penetrating Radar," held during the 2009 SEG Annual Meeting in Houston, Texas. This is the first cooperative publication effort between the near-surface communities of SEG, AGU, and EEGS. It will appeal to a large and diverse audience that includes researchers and practitioners inside and outside the near-surface geophysics community. --Publisher description.

Ground Penetrating Radar

The book gives a clear and formative guidance on understanding the critical factors in using GPR, as well as a checklist of surveying considerations.

Author: Erica Carrick Utsi

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0081022166

Category: Ground penetrating radar

Page: 224

View: 967

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Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and Practice is a practical guide to using this powerful underground surveying technique. The author uses her wide experience to explain the critical factors in using GPR and how parameters, such as wavelength, attenuation and loss need to be properly considered to obtain good survey results. The first chapter introduces the underlying physics and explains the formation of signal patterning. The next two chapters explain the significance of wavelengths for target detection, probing depths and resolution, and demonstrating the variety of signal presentation. Chapter four discusses why survey results are affected by water and air in the soil, and how this may affect depth readings. Additional chapters discuss a variety of methods for velocity calibration and suggests where they may be useful, challenging soil conditions and potential problem environments, data processing and a suite of useful techniques, amongst other important topics. The book gives a clear and formative guidance on understanding the critical factors in using GPR, as well as a checklist of surveying considerations. Covers the critical, practical factors in using a ground penetrating radar, including troubleshooting appropriate equipment selection Explains why wavelengths matter, providing practice calculations Offers insight into how to spot ringing (echo effects) and air signals, and how to distinguish these from subsurface data Enables the reader to understand the importance of calibration of transmission velocity and a range of methodsa

Ground Penetrating Radar for Archaeology

Iohnson, R. W., R. Glaccum, and R. Wotasinski 1980 Application of Ground Penetrating Radar to Soil Survey. Soil Crop Science Society Proceedings 39:68—72. Iol, Harry M. 2009 Ground Penetrating Radar Theory and Applications.

Author: Lawrence B. Conyers

Publisher: AltaMira Press

ISBN: 9780759123502

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 410

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A concise and easy-to-read summary of all the latest and crucial aspects of ground-penetrating radar uses and data collection, analysis, and processing for archaeological mapping and exploration

GPR Remote Sensing in Archaeology

The simulations can help interpreters of radargrams to better understand the basic elements of GPR propagation, but to also comprehend why subsurface features do not ... In: Jol HM (ed) Ground penetrating radar: theory and applications.

Author: Dean Goodman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642318573

Category: Science

Page: 233

View: 361

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GPR Remote Sensing in Archaeology provides a complete description of the processes needed to take raw GPR data all the way to the construction of subsurface images. The book provides an introduction to the “theory” of GPR by using a simulator that shows how radar profiles across simple model structures look and provides many examples so that the complexity of radar signatures can be understood. It continues with a review of the necessary radargram signal processes needed along with examples. The most comprehensive methodology to construct subsurface images from either coarsely spaced data using interpolation or from dense data from multi-channel equipment and 3D volume generation is presented, advanced imaging solutions such as overlay analysis are introduced, and numerous worldwide site case histories are shown. The authors present their studies in a way that most technical and non-technical users of the equipment will find essentials for implementing in their own subsurface investigations.

Techniques for Real World Ground Penetrating Radar Data Analysis

Locational accuracy of underground utility mapping using ground penetrating radar. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 35(0):20 – 29. 66, 79 Jol, H. M., editor (2009). Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and Applications.

Author: André Busche

Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag

ISBN: 9783736946651

Category: Computers

Page: 216

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Abstract Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Data Analysis deals with the problem of shallow subsurface imaging, which is motivated by the daily work of engineers, \eg those of municipalities.The concrete problem tackled in this thesis is motivated by the fact, that, at least in Germany, municipalities have knowledge about the existence of supply lines such as gas and water pipelines to cross and follow urban streets, while their actual position is often uncertain.The consequences are obvious:once a street undergoes maintenance works, pipes are easily broken.This also causes heavy problems to residents who are cut off from some supplies for a period of time. This thesis approaches a solution to the object detection problem in GPR data by means of (semi-)automated data analysis techniques, using Machine Learning methods.The problem is treated as a specialized problem for object detection in image data.In this application context, it is possible to integrate certain background knowledge and processing techniques in well-known Machine Learning methods. The thesis formalizes the problem first.A technical framework for the analysis of Complex Engineering Raw Data – CERD -, as a generalization of our current data at hand, will be used for all analysis methods developed.From a thorough data analysis, it becomes clear that our data labels are unsuitable for directly applying supervised Machine Learning methods.Therefore, we will be obtaining suitable ground truth data by semi-manually labeling more than 700 images by hand.The second part of the thesis presents both, supervised and unsupervised Machine Learning techniques for the detection of buried object locations.Techniques are introduced within the general context of object detection techniques within image data.The integration of geometrical background knowledge is shown to be feasible in all methods developed. This thesis will contribute in the followings: *The methodology and suitability of high-quality ground truth data for GPR data analysis is presented. *A conceptual framework along with its technical framework for the analysis of CERD is presented. *Intuitive, state of the art analysis methods for the interpretation of GPR data are presented, discussed, and evaluated. Zusammenfassung Die Bodenradaranalyse (Ground Penetrating Radar – GPR) bezeichnet ein Forschungsfeld, welches nicht-destruktive Radartechnologie einsetzt, um unterirdische Strukturen sichtbar zu machen.Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Teilbereich der unterirdischen Leitungsortung unter Zuhilfenahme überwachter maschineller Lernverfahren (Machine Learning Methoden).Halb-automatische Lernverfahren werden eingesetzt, da es sich um sehr große Datenmengen handelt, die derzeit noch vorwiegend händisch von Ingenieuren analysiert werden.Dieses stellt wesentliche Zeit-, Kosten- und Fehlerfaktoren dar, welche es zu optimieren gilt.Eine manuelle Bestimmung auf Basis bestehender Versorgungsleitungspläne ist besonders in Deutschland nicht möglich, da diese auf teilweise mehrere Meter ungenau und unter Umständen sogar unvollständig sind. Diese Doktorarbeit versucht, die Analyse von Bodenradardaten mit Hilfe überwachter Lernverfahren des `Machine Learnings’ zu automatisieren.Das allgemeine Vorgehen orientiert sich dabei an bekannten Bildverarbeitungsmethoden.Domänenspezifische Eigenschaften werden als Hintergrundwissen in die angewandten Verfahren integriert. Diese Arbeit besteht im wesentlichen aus zwei Teilen.Der erste Teil, bestehend aus den Kapiteln eins bis vier, führt die Problemstellung ein (Kapitel eins) und formalisiert diese (Kapitel zwei).Kapitel drei definiert den technischen Rahmen.Die vorliegenden Daten werden in Kapitel vier analysiert und vorverarbeitet.Aufgrund anwendungsspezifischer Besonderheiten wird in Kapitel fünf eine Methode dargestellt und eingesetzt, um qualitativ hochwertige Annotationen zu gewinnen, die die Grundlage für zu entwickelnde Analyseverfahren darstellt.Der zweite Teil präsentiert und analysiert die Qualität von unüberwachten (Kapitel sieben) und überwachten (Kapitel sechs, acht, neun) Lernverfahren.Hintergrundwissen wird, wann immer möglich, für eine Qualitätsverbesserung integriert. Die wesentlichen Inhalte dieser Arbeit sind folgende: *Hochwertige Annotationen für komplexe Sensordaten werden erhoben und aus verschiedenen Perspektiven verglichen und analysiert. *Ein konzeptuelles Framework für die Analyse komplexer Sensordaten wird präsentiert und prototypisch implementiert. *Intuitive Verfahren für die Bodenradar-Datenanalyse werden entwickelt, angepasst, vorgestellt und qualitativ verglichen.

Ground penetrating Radar for Geoarchaeology

References Annan, Peter (2008) Electromagnetic principles of ground penetrating radar. In: Harry M. Jol (ed.) Ground Penetrating Radar Theory and Applications, pp. 3–40. Elsevier Science Limited Kidlington, Oxford.

Author: Lawrence B. Conyers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118950005

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 572

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There has long been a strong collaboration between geologists and archaeologists, and the sub-field of geoarchaeology is well developed as a discipline in its own right. This book now bridges the gap between those fields and the geophysical technique of ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which allows for three-dimensional analysis of the ground to visualize both geological and archaeological materials. This method has the ability to produce images of the ground that display complex packages of materials, and allows researchers to integrate sedimentary units, soils and associated archaeological features in ways not possible using standard excavation techniques. The ability of GPR to visualize all these buried units can help archaeologists place ancient people within the landscapes and environments of their time, and understand their burial and preservation phenomena in three-dimensions. Readership: Advanced students in archaeology and geoarchaeology, as well as practicing archaeologists with an interest in GPS techniques.

Introduction to Ground Penetrating Radar

Step frequency radar, Journalof Applied Physics 56(9), 2572–2583. J.D. Jackson (1998). Classical Electrodynamics, 3 edition, John Wiley Sons, New York. H. Jol(2009). Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and Applications, Elsevier, New York.

Author: Raffaele Persico

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118835685

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 558

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A real-world guide to practical applications of groundpenetrating radar (GPR) The nondestructive nature of ground penetrating radar makes itan important and popular method of subsurface imaging, but it is ahighly specialized field, requiring a deep understanding of theunderlying science for successful application. Introduction toGround Penetrating Radar: Inverse Scattering and DataProcessing provides experienced professionals with thebackground they need to ensure precise data collection andanalysis. Written to build upon the information presented in more generalintroductory volumes, the book discusses the fundamentalmathematical, physical, and engineering principles upon which GPRis built. Real-world examples and field data provide readers anaccurate view of day-to-day GPR use. Topics include: 2D scattering for dielectric and magnetic targets 3D scattering equations and migration algorithms Host medium characterization and diffraction tomography Time and frequency steps in GPR data sampling The Born approximation and the singular valuedecomposition The six appendices contain the mathematical proofs of allexamples discussed throughout the book. Introduction to GroundPenetrating Radar: Inverse Scattering and Data Processing is acomprehensive resource that will prove invaluable in the field.