Gravitational Lensing Strong Weak and Micro

The up-to-date contributions in this book are based on the lecture notes of the 33rd Saas–Fee Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, entitled Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak, and Micro.

Author: Peter Schneider

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540303107

Category: Science

Page: 552

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The observation, in 1919 by A.S. Eddington and collaborators, of the gra- tational de?ection of light by the Sun proved one of the many predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity: The Sun was the ?rst example of a gravitational lens. In 1936, Albert Einstein published an article in which he suggested - ing stars as gravitational lenses. A year later, Fritz Zwicky pointed out that galaxies would act as lenses much more likely than stars, and also gave a list of possible applications, as a means to determine the dark matter content of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It was only in 1979 that the ?rst example of an extragalactic gravitational lens was provided by the observation of the distant quasar QSO 0957+0561, by D. Walsh, R.F. Carswell, and R.J. Weymann. A few years later, the ?rst lens showing images in the form of arcs was detected. The theory, observations, and applications of gravitational lensing cons- tute one of the most rapidly growing branches of astrophysics. The gravi- tional de?ection of light generated by mass concentrations along a light path producesmagni?cation,multiplicity,anddistortionofimages,anddelaysp- ton propagation from one line of sight relative to another. The huge amount of scienti?c work produced over the last decade on gravitational lensing has clearly revealed its already substantial and wide impact, and its potential for future astrophysical applications.

General Relativity and Gravitation

Gravitational lensing: strong, weak and micro. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Treu, T., Marshall, P. J., and Clowe, D. 2012. Amer. J. Phys., 80, 753–763. Kochanek, C. S. 2006. Part 2: Strong gravitational lensing.

Author: Abhay Ashtekar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316298695

Category: Science

Page:

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Explore spectacular advances in cosmology, relativistic astrophysics, gravitational wave science, mathematics, computational science, and the interface of gravitation and quantum physics with this unique celebration of the centennial of Einstein's discovery of general relativity. Twelve comprehensive and in-depth reviews, written by a team of world-leading international experts, together present an up-to-date overview of key topics at the frontiers of these areas, with particular emphasis on the significant developments of the last three decades. Interconnections with other fields of research are also highlighted, making this an invaluable resource for both new and experienced researchers. Commissioned by the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation, and including accessible introductions to cutting-edge topics, ample references to original research papers, and informative colour figures, this is a definitive reference for researchers and graduate students in cosmology, relativity, and gravitational science.

Clusters of Galaxies Beyond the Thermal View

(2008). doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9321-8 P. Schneider, in Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro, ed. by G. Meylan, P. Jetzer, P. North. SaasFee Advanced Course, vol. 33 (Springer, Berlin, 2006), p. 1 P. Schuecker, H. Böhringer, ...

Author: Jelle Kaastra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387788751

Category: Science

Page: 418

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The existence of soft excess emission originating from clusters of galaxies, de ned as em- sion detected below 1 keV in excess over the usual thermal emission from hot intracluster gas (hereafter the ICM) has been claimed since 1996. Soft excesses are particularly - portant to detect because they may (at least partly) be due to thermal emission from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium, where as much as half of the baryons of the Universe could be. They are therefore of fundamental cosmological importance. Soft excess emission has been observed (and has also given rise to controversy) in a number of clusters, mainly raising the following questions: (1) Do clusters really show a soft excess? (2) If so, from what spatial region(s) of the cluster does the soft excess or- inate? (3) Is this excess emission thermal, originating from warm-hot intergalactic gas (at 6 temperatures of?10 K), or non-thermal, in which case several emission mechanisms have been proposed. Interestingly, some of the non-thermal mechanisms suggested to account for soft excess emission can also explain the hard X-ray emission detected in some clusters, for example by RXTE and BeppoSAX (also see Petrosian et al. 2008—Chap. 10, this issue; Rephaeli et al. 2008—Chap. 5, this issue).

Gravitational Lensing

Microlensing optical depth toward the galactic bulge using clump giants from the MACHO Survey. Astrophysical Journal, 631(Oct.), ... Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33. SaasFee Advanced Course.

Author: Scott Dodelson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108161695

Category: Science

Page:

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Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

Questions of Modern Cosmology

Schneider, P.: Introduction to gravitational lensing and cosmology. In: Gravitational lensing: Strong, weak and micro. Meylan, G., Jetzer, P., North, P., Schneider, P., Kochanek, C.S., Wambsganss, J. (eds.), Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33.

Author: Mauro D'Onofrio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642007927

Category: Science

Page: 530

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Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose to some of the most prominent cosmologists of our time. Triggered by these questions and in the spirit of Galileo's book "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" the roughly 40 interview partners reply in the form of essays, with a critical frankness not normally found in reviews, monographs or textbooks.

Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing

... as he has taught me most of what I know about lensing in general and making microlensing maps in particular. ... Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33, Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) Schneider, ...

Author: Evencio Mediavilla

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107078543

Category: Science

Page: 278

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This book presents gravitational lensing as an essential tool in astrophysics for tracking dark matter at all scales in the Universe.

Principles of Gravitational Lensing

While some problems are best suited to one of the three flavors of lensing (strong, weak, or micro), there are others for which it is possible to combine constraints from the different lensing regimes. The distribution of dark matter in ...

Author: Arthur B. Congdon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030021221

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 841

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This textbook provides an introduction to gravitational lensing, which has become an invaluable tool in modern astrophysics, with applications that range from finding planets orbiting distant stars to understanding how dark matter and dark energy conspired to form the cosmic structures we see today. Principles of Gravitational Lensing begins with Einstein’s prediction that gravity bends light, and shows how that fundamental idea has spawned a rich field of study over the past century. The gravitational deflection of light was first detected by Eddington during a solar eclipse in May 1919, launching Einstein and his theory of relativity into public view. Yet the possibility of using the phenomenon to unlock mysteries of the Universe seemed remote, given the technology of the day. Theoretical work was carried out sporadically over the next six decades, but only with the discovery of the system Q0957+561 in 1979 was gravitational lensing transformed from a curiosity of general relativity into a practical observational tool. This book describes how the three subfields known as strong lensing, weak lensing, and microlensing have grown independently but become increasingly intertwined. Drawing on their research experience, Congdon and Keeton begin with the basic physics of light bending, then present the mathematical foundations of gravitational lensing, building up to current research topics in a clear and systematic way. Relevant background material from physics and mathematics is included, making the book self-contained. The derivations and explanations are supplemented by exercises designed to help students master the theoretical concepts as well as the methods that drive current research. An extensive bibliography guides those wishing to delve more deeply into particular areas of interest. Principles of Gravitational Lensing is ideal for advanced students and seasoned researchers looking to penetrate this thriving subject and even contribute research of their own.

GravItational Lensing of Quasars

Schneider, P., Kochanek, C. S., & Wambsganss, J. 2006, in Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33: Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro, ed. G. Meylan, P. Jetzer, & P. North. Schneider, P., & Weiss, A. 1987, A&A, 171, 49.

Author: Alexander Eigenbrod

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439873540

Category: Science

Page: 152

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The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, GravItational Lensing of Quasars describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applica- tions of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher resolutions than those accessible with the largest telescopes. This book gives an overview of the current status of research in the field of gravitationally lensed quasars. It also gives some insights about the way this research is conducted in practice, and presents real data and results obtained with several high-technology instruments of the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory.

Principles of Gravitational Lensing

This book describes how the three subfields known as strong lensing, weak lensing, and microlensing have grown independently but become increasingly intertwined.

Author: Arthur B. Congdon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030021211

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 705

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This textbook provides an introduction to gravitational lensing, which has become an invaluable tool in modern astrophysics, with applications that range from finding planets orbiting distant stars to understanding how dark matter and dark energy conspired to form the cosmic structures we see today. Principles of Gravitational Lensing begins with Einstein’s prediction that gravity bends light, and shows how that fundamental idea has spawned a rich field of study over the past century. The gravitational deflection of light was first detected by Eddington during a solar eclipse in May 1919, launching Einstein and his theory of relativity into public view. Yet the possibility of using the phenomenon to unlock mysteries of the Universe seemed remote, given the technology of the day. Theoretical work was carried out sporadically over the next six decades, but only with the discovery of the system Q0957+561 in 1979 was gravitational lensing transformed from a curiosity of general relativity into a practical observational tool. This book describes how the three subfields known as strong lensing, weak lensing, and microlensing have grown independently but become increasingly intertwined. Drawing on their research experience, Congdon and Keeton begin with the basic physics of light bending, then present the mathematical foundations of gravitational lensing, building up to current research topics in a clear and systematic way. Relevant background material from physics and mathematics is included, making the book self-contained. The derivations and explanations are supplemented by exercises designed to help students master the theoretical concepts as well as the methods that drive current research. An extensive bibliography guides those wishing to delve more deeply into particular areas of interest. Principles of Gravitational Lensing is ideal for advanced students and seasoned researchers looking to penetrate this thriving subject and even contribute research of their own.

Impact of Gravitational Lensing on Cosmology IAU S225

that the agreement between the data and the models for radio lens surveys , which use basically the same input ... J. , 2004 , Part 2 of Gravitational Lensing : Strong , Weak & Micro , Proceedings of the 33rd Saas - Fee Advanced Course ...

Author: International Astronomical Union. Symposium

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521851963

Category: Science

Page: 448

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Proceedings of IAU Symposium 225, on the applications of gravitational lensing to cosmological physics.

100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics The Status of the Einstein s Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year

In Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro, Saas-Fee Advanced Courses 33; Schneider, P., Kochanek, C.S., Wambsganss, ... Bacon, D.J.; Réfrégier, A.R.; Ellis, R.S. Detection of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure.

Author: Lorenzo Iorio

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783038424826

Category: Mathematics

Page: 468

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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics: the Status of the Einstein's Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year" that was published in Universe

Dark Energy

[577] M. Bartelmann and P. Schneider, Weak gravitational lensing, Phys. Rept. 340 (2001), 291. [578] P. Schneider, Weak Gravitational Lensing, Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro, Saas-Fee Advanced Courses, Volume 33.

Author: Luca Amendola

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139488570

Category: Science

Page:

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Dark energy, the mysterious cause of the accelerating expansion of the universe, is one of the most important fields of research in astrophysics and cosmology today. Introducing the theoretical ideas, observational methods and results, this textbook is ideally suited to graduate courses on dark energy, and will also supplement advanced cosmology courses. Providing a thorough introduction to this exciting field, the textbook covers the cosmological constant, quintessence, k-essence, perfect fluid models, extra-dimensional models, and modified gravity. Observational research is reviewed, from the cosmic microwave background to baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing and cluster abundances. Every chapter ends with problems, with full solutions provided, and any calculations are worked through step-by-step.

Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy

Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys—I. methodology and a fast-fitting algorithm. MNRAS, 382:315–324, 2007. 62. ... In G. Meylan, P. Jetzer, and P. North, editors, Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak & Micro.

Author: Michael J. Way

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439841747

Category: Computers

Page: 744

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Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy documents numerous successful collaborations among computer scientists, statisticians, and astronomers who illustrate the application of state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining techniques in astronomy. Due to the massive amount and complexity of data in most scientific disciplines

Galaxy Formation

... and 462 Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro (Schneider, Kochanek and Wambsganss) 130, 138 gravitational mass 173,174 gravitational potential, Newtonian limit 179 gravitational redshift 176–179 dependence upon gravitational ...

Author: Malcolm Longair

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540734772

Category: Science

Page: 738

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Delineating the huge strides taken in cosmology in the past ten years, this much-anticipated second edition of Malcolm Longair's highly appreciated textbook has been extensively and thoroughly updated. It tells the story of modern astrophysical cosmology from the perspective of one of its most important and fundamental problems – how did the galaxies come about? Longair uses this approach to introduce the whole of what may be called "classical cosmology". What’s more, he describes how the study of the origin of galaxies and larger-scale structures in the Universe has provided us with direct information about the physics of the very early Universe.

Gravitational Lensing and Optical Geometry

With respect to the m = n binary lens case, we note that for large m we still have large secondary triangular caustics ... Schneider, P.; Kochanek, C.S.; Wambsganss, J. Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro; Lecture Notes of the ...

Author: Marcus C.Werner

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039432868

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

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The year 2019 saw the centenary of Eddington's eclipse expeditions and the corroboration of Einstein's general relativity by gravitational lensing. To mark the occasion, a Special Issue of Universe has been dedicated to the theoretical aspects of strong gravitational lensing. The articles assembled in this volume contain original research and reviews and apply a variety of mathematical techniques that have been developed to study this effect, both in 3-space and in spacetime. These include: · Mathematical properties of the standard thin lens approximation, in particular caustics; · Optical geometry, the Gauss–Bonnet method and related approaches; · Lensing in the spacetime of general relativity and modified theories; black hole shadows.

High Energy Astrophysics

... 302 for electrical conductivity of plasma, 302 frequency averaged, 168 Gauss's theorem for Newtonian gravity, 92, ... weak, 122 Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro (Schneider, Kochanek and Wambsganss), 118 gravitational ...

Author: Malcolm S. Longair

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139494540

Category: Science

Page: 888

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Providing students with an in-depth account of the astrophysics of high energy phenomena in the Universe, the third edition of this well-established textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in high energy astrophysics. Building on the concepts and techniques taught in standard undergraduate courses, this textbook provides the astronomical and astrophysical background for students to explore more advanced topics. Special emphasis is given to the underlying physical principles of high energy astrophysics, helping students understand the essential physics. The third edition has been completely rewritten, consolidating the previous editions into one volume. It covers the most recent discoveries in areas such as gamma-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic rays and ultra-high energy gamma rays. The topics have been rearranged and streamlined to make them more applicable to a wide range of different astrophysical problems.

New Horizons for Observational Cosmology

[5] Schneider P., Part 3: Weak gravitational lensing, in Proceedings of Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33: Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro, edited by Meylan G., Jetzer P., North P., Schneider P., Kochanek C. S. and Wambsganss J.

Author: A. Cooray

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781614994763

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 416

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Our understanding of the universe has been revolutionized by observations of the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure of the universe, and distant supernovae. These studies have shown that we are living in a strange universe: 96% of the present day energy density of the universe is dominated by so-called dark matter and dark energy. But we still do not know what dark matter and dark energy actually are. This book presents lectures from the 186th Course in the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics entitled New Horizons for Observational Cosmology, held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2013. Topics covered at this school included: cosmic microwave background anisotropies; galaxy clustering; weak lensing; dark energy; dark matter; inflation; modified gravity; neutrino physics; reionization; galaxy formation; and first stars. The anticipated release of Planck data at the end of 2014 will provide a more complete view of temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, and the reporting of other important results is also expected soon. These new data will undoubtedly address fundamental questions about the universe. This book prepares the ground for future work which may answer some of these exciting questions.