Gene Conservation and Exploitation

We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion.

Author: J. Perry Gustafson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781489911360

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 749

DOWNLOAD →

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) tuber is a major food source in many countries of the world, and subsequently potato has been the target of a good deal of effort directed at engineering disease and herbicide tolerance, and improvements in various crop characteristics. Consequently investigations into the regulation of gene expression in tubers is relevant to these endeavours, as tubers are the main target organ for modification of gene expression. We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion. At the molecular level, tuber development is characterised by a massive increase in starch deposition and the synthesis of a limited number of abundant proteins. These include proteinase inhibitors and a 40kd group of proteins called patatin, which are acyl hydrolases. Together these proteins account for over 50% of tuber proteins (reviewed by Bevan, 1991). The synthesis of these proteins has parallels to the synthesis of other somatic storage proteins, especially the VSP proteins of soybean. In both potato and soybean, removal of the sink for these proteins (tubers and pods, respectively) causes deposition in other tissues (Staswick, 1990). It is hypothesised that transcriptional control of the genes encoding these proteins is regulated in part by source-sink relationships of metabolites or other factors. In the case of VSPs, both amino acid levels and jasmonic acid play a major regulatory role (Staswick et aI.

Gene Conservation and Exploitation

We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion.

Author: J. Perry Gustafson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0306445336

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 564

DOWNLOAD →

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) tuber is a major food source in many countries of the world, and subsequently potato has been the target of a good deal of effort directed at engineering disease and herbicide tolerance, and improvements in various crop characteristics. Consequently investigations into the regulation of gene expression in tubers is relevant to these endeavours, as tubers are the main target organ for modification of gene expression. We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion. At the molecular level, tuber development is characterised by a massive increase in starch deposition and the synthesis of a limited number of abundant proteins. These include proteinase inhibitors and a 40kd group of proteins called patatin, which are acyl hydrolases. Together these proteins account for over 50% of tuber proteins (reviewed by Bevan, 1991). The synthesis of these proteins has parallels to the synthesis of other somatic storage proteins, especially the VSP proteins of soybean. In both potato and soybean, removal of the sink for these proteins (tubers and pods, respectively) causes deposition in other tissues (Staswick, 1990). It is hypothesised that transcriptional control of the genes encoding these proteins is regulated in part by source-sink relationships of metabolites or other factors. In the case of VSPs, both amino acid levels and jasmonic acid play a major regulatory role (Staswick et aI.

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the ...

Author: J.G. Hawkes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401141369

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 768

DOWNLOAD →

It is a distressing truism that the human race during the last millennium has caused the exponential loss of plant genetic diversity throughout the world. This has had direct and negative economic, political and social consequences for the human race, which at the same time has failed to exploit fully the positive benefits that might result from conserving and exploiting the world's plant genetic resources. However, a strong movement to halt this loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation for the benefit of all humanity has been underway since the 1960's (Frankel and Bennett, 1970; Frankel and Hawkes, 1975). This initiative was taken up by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) that not only expounds the need to conserve biological diversity but links conservation to exploitation and development for the benefit of all. Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the adoption of a complementary approach to conservation that incorporates both ex situ and in situ techniques.

Human Exploitation and Biodiversity Conservation

This book presents a wide range of contributions addressing diverse aspects of biodiversity exploitation and conservation.

Author: David L. Hawksworth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402052835

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 132

DOWNLOAD →

This book presents a wide range of contributions addressing diverse aspects of biodiversity exploitation and conservation. These collectively provide a snapshot of ongoing action and state-of-the-art research, rather than a series of necessarily more superficial overviews. Examples presented here derive from studies in 17 countries including Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America. These reports will stimulate future work toward attaining a sustainable balance between the conservation and exploitation of biodiversity.

The Exploitation of Plant Genetic Information

Controversies on the use and conservation of plant genetic information have become major obstacles in international negotiations on trade, agriculture and biodiversity conservation. This book examines the origins of these controversies.

Author: Robin Pistorius

Publisher: Biotechnology in Agriculture S

ISBN: STANFORD:36105028658719

Category: Medical

Page: 231

View: 400

DOWNLOAD →

Controversies on the use and conservation of plant genetic information have become major obstacles in international negotiations on trade, agriculture and biodiversity conservation. This book examines the origins of these controversies. It stresses the importance of agricultural politics in directing developments in conservation and intellectual property protection. Evidence for this argument is derived from historical and contemporary data on Europe and the USA, as well as fieldwork in Latin America.

The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

Establishing closer links between activities which promote the conservation and exploitation of plant genetic diversity. • Increased access to germplasm conservation and exploitation technology, by means of active programmes of ...

Author: J. G. Hawkes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: STANFORD:36105028640345

Category: Medical

Page: 250

View: 439

DOWNLOAD →

It is a distressing truism that the human race during the last millennium has caused the exponential loss of plant genetic diversity throughout the world. This has had direct and negative economic, political and social consequences for the human race, which at the same time has failed to exploit fully the positive benefits that might result from conserving and exploiting the world's plant genetic resources. However, a strong movement to halt this loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation for the benefit of all humanity has been underway since the 1960's (Frankel and Bennett, 1970; Frankel and Hawkes, 1975). This initiative was taken up by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) that not only expounds the need to conserve biological diversity but links conservation to exploitation and development for the benefit of all. Article 8 of the Convention clearly states the need to develop more effective and efficient guidelines to conserve biological diversity, while Article 9, along with the FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, promotes the adoption of a complementary approach to conservation that incorporates both ex situ and in situ techniques.

Plant Breeding

This book describes the experimental and analytical methodologies available for the genetical analysis of qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits and its applications in practical plant breeding and evolution.

Author: Darbeshwar Roy

Publisher: Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.

ISBN: 1842650068

Category: Science

Page: 701

View: 182

DOWNLOAD →

This book describes the experimental and analytical methodologies available for the genetical analysis of qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits and its applications in practical plant breeding and evolution. Models for studying quantitative genetic variation following Birmingham and Edinburgh notations are described. The statistics used is simple and systematic so that the reader will have no difficulty in solving problems in plant genetics. It describes the genetic principles and provides breeding procedures underlying various breeding methods for manipulating qualitative, quasi-quantitative and quantitative traits. It takes into account the latest developments in breeding methodologies including dihaiploidy and apomixis, applications of tissue culture for plant breeding use, genetic engineering for production of transgenics and hybrids, and molecular marker technologies in the analysis of quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, evolution and conservation of genetic resources. This book will be useful for undergraduates, postgraduates, teachers and researchers working in the field of genetics and plant breeding.

Fundamentals of Conservation Biology

In the new edition of this highly successful book, Malcolm Hunter and new co-author James Gibbs offer a thorough introduction to the fascinating and important field of conservation biology, focusing on what can be done to maintain ...

Author: Malcolm L. Hunter, Jr.

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444308976

Category: Science

Page: 516

View: 288

DOWNLOAD →

In the new edition of this highly successful book, Malcolm Hunter and new co-author James Gibbs offer a thorough introduction to the fascinating and important field of conservation biology, focusing on what can be done to maintain biodiversity through management of ecosystems and populations. Starting with a succinct look at conservation and biodiversity, this book progresses to contend with some of the subject's most complex topics, such as mass extinctions, ecosystem degradation, and over exploitation. Discusses social, political, and economic aspects of conservation biology. Thoroughly revised with over six hundred new references and web links to many of the organizations involved in conservation biology, striking photographs and maps. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/hunter and by request on CD-ROM.