From Photon to Neuron

This is an excellent and well-developed textbook on the physics of light as it is processed by biological organisms and on how light can be used to interrogate biological material.

Author: Philip Nelson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691175195

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 164


What is light? -- Photons and life -- Color vision -- How photons know where to go -- Optical phenomena and life -- Direct image formation -- Imaging as inference -- Imaging by X-ray diffraction -- Vision in dim light -- The mechanism of visual transduction -- The first synapse and beyond -- Electrons, photons, and the Feynman principle -- Field quantization, polarization, and the orientation of a single molecule -- Quantum-mechanical theory of FRET

From Photon to Neuron

Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for ...

Author: Philip Nelson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400885480

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 592


A richly illustrated undergraduate textbook on the physics and biology of light Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more. With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises. Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors

Our Changing Views of Photons

Nelson P. From Photon to Neuron: Light, Imaging, Vision (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, NJ, 2017). Neuenschwander D.E. Emmy Noether's Wonderful Theorem (Johns Hopkins Univ Press, Baltimore, MD, 2017), revised edition.

Author: Bruce W. Shore

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192607645

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 626


Advances in technology often rely on a world of photons as the basic units of light. Increasingly one reads of photons as essential to enterprises in Photonics and Quantum Technology, with career and investment opportunities. Notions of photons have evolved from the energy-packet crowds of Planck and Einstein, the later field modes of Dirac, the seeming conflict of wave and particle photons, to the ubiquitous laser photons of today. Readers who take interest in contemporary technology will benefit from learning what photons are now considered to be, and how our views of photons have changed — in learning about the various operational definitions that have been used for photons and their association with a variety of quantum-state manipulations that include Quantum Information, astronomical sources and crowds of photons, the boxed fields of Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics and single photons on demand, the photons of Feynman and Glauber, and the photon constituents of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The narrative points to contemporary photons as causers of change to atoms, as carriers of messages, and as subject to controllable creation and alteration — a considerable diversity of photons, not just one kind. Our Changing Views of Photons: A Tutorial Memoir presents those general topics as a memoir of the author's involvement with physics and the photons of theoretical Quantum Optics, written conversationally for readers with no assumed prior exposure to science. It offers lay readers a glimpse of scientific discovery — of how ideas become practical, as a small scientific community reconsiders its assumptions and offers the theoretical ideas that are then developed, revised, and adopted into technology for daily use. For readers who want a more detailed understanding of the theory, three substantial appendices provide tutorials that, assuming no prior familiarity, proceed from a very elementary start to basics of discrete states and abstract vector spaces; Lie groups; notions of quantum theory and the Schrödinger equation for quantum-state manipulation; Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism, with wave modes that become photons, possibly exhibiting quantum entanglement; and the coupling of atoms and fields to create quasiparticles. The appendices can be seen as a companion to traditional textbooks on Quantum Optics.

The Senses A Comprehensive Reference

Nonlinear signal transfer from mouse rods to bipolar cells and implications for visual sensitivity. Neuron 34 (5), 773–785. Field, G.D., Rieke, F., 2002b. Mechanisms regulating variability of the single photon responses of mammalian ...


Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128054093

Category: Medical

Page: 5208

View: 720


The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition, is a comprehensive reference work covering the range of topics that constitute current knowledge of the neural mechanisms underlying the different senses. This important work provides the most up-to-date, cutting-edge, comprehensive reference combining volumes on all major sensory modalities in one set. Offering 264 chapters from a distinguished team of international experts, The Senses lays out current knowledge on the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of sensory organs, in a collection of comprehensive chapters spanning 4 volumes. Topics covered include the perception, psychophysics, and higher order processing of sensory information, as well as disorders and new diagnostic and treatment methods. Written for a wide audience, this reference work provides students, scholars, medical doctors, as well as anyone interested in neuroscience, a comprehensive overview of the knowledge accumulated on the function of sense organs, sensory systems, and how the brain processes sensory input. As with the first edition, contributions from leading scholars from around the world will ensure The Senses offers a truly international portrait of sensory physiology. The set is the definitive reference on sensory neuroscience and provides the ultimate entry point into the review and original literature in Sensory Neuroscience enabling students and scientists to delve into the subject and deepen their knowledge. All-inclusive coverage of topics: updated edition offers readers the only current reference available covering neurobiology, physiology, anatomy, and molecular biology of sense organs and the processing of sensory information in the brain Authoritative content: world-leading contributors provide readers with a reputable, dynamic and authoritative account of the topics under discussion Comprehensive-style content: in-depth, complex coverage of topics offers students at upper undergraduate level and above full insight into topics under discussion

Retinal Computation

Mechanisms regulating variability of the single photon responses of mammalian rod photoreceptors. Neuron 35(4), 733–747. Field, G.D., and Rieke, F. (2002b). Nonlinear signal transfer from mouse rods to bipolar cells and implications for ...

Author: Greg Schwartz

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128231777

Category: Medical

Page: 340

View: 369


Retinal Computation summarizes current progress in defining the computations performed by the retina, also including the synaptic and circuit mechanisms by which they are implemented. Each chapter focuses on a single retinal computation that includes the definition of the computation and its neuroethological purpose, along with the available information on its known and unknown neuronal mechanisms. All chapters contain end-of-chapter questions associated with a landmark paper, as well as programming exercises. This book is written for advanced graduate students, researchers and ophthalmologists interested in vision science or computational neuroscience of sensory systems. While the typical textbook's description of the retina is akin to a biological video camera, the real retina is actually the world’s most complex image processing machine. As part of the central nervous system, the retina converts patterns of light at the input into a rich palette of representations at the output. The parallel streams of information in the optic nerve encode features like color, contrast, orientation of edges, and direction of motion. Image processing in the retina is undeniably complex, but as one of the most accessible parts of the central nervous system, the tools to study retinal circuits with unprecedented precision are up to the task. This book provides a practical guide and resource about the current state of the field of retinal computation. Provides a practical guide on the field of retinal computation Summarizes and clearly explains important topics such as luminance, contrast, spatial features, motion and other computations Contains discussion questions, a landmark paper, and programming exercises within each chapter

In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function Second Edition

Borst, A. and Egelhaaf, M. In vivo imaging of calcium accumulation in fly interneurons as elicited by visual motion stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 4139–4143, 1992. 2. Denk, W. et al. Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence ...

Author: Ron D. Frostig

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420076851

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 392


These are exciting times for the field of optical imaging of brain function. Rapid developments in theory and technology continue to considerably advance understanding of brain function. Reflecting changes in the field during the past five years, the second edition of In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function describes state-of-the-art techniques and their applications for the growing field of functional imaging in the live brain using optical imaging techniques. New in the Second Edition: Voltage-sensitive dyes imaging in awake behaving animals Imaging based on genetically encoded probes Imaging of mitochondrial auto-fluorescence as a tool for cortical mapping Using pH-sensitive dyes for functional mapping Modulated imaging Calcium imaging of neuronal activity using 2-photon microscopy Fourier approach to optical imaging Fully updated chapters from the first edition Leading Authorities Explore the Latest Techniques Updated to reflect continuous development in this emerging research area, this new edition, as with the original, reaches across disciplines to review a variety of non-invasive optical techniques used to study activity in the living brain. Leading authorities from such diverse areas as biophysics, neuroscience, and cognitive science present a host of perspectives that range from a single neuron to large assemblies of millions of neurons, captured at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Introducing techniques that were not available just a few years ago, the authors describe the theory, setup, analytical methods, and examples that highlight the advantages of each particular method.

Methods for Synaptic Interrogation

Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick. Neuron 18, 351–357. doi: 10.1016/s08966273(00)81237-4 Ellis-Davies, G. C. R. (2007). Caged compounds: photorelease technology for control of cellular chemistry and ...

Author: Dirk Feldmeyer

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889638642



View: 488


Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy

Images of neurons from both live and fixed tissue can be taken by the two-photon microscope and the stacks of images can be imported into a computerized reconstruction and measuring program, such as Neurolucida (Microbrightfield, ...

Author: James Pawley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387455242

Category: Science

Page: 985

View: 418


Once the second edition was safely off to the printer, the 110 larger world of micro-CT and micro-MRI and the smaller world authors breathed a sigh of relief and relaxed, secure in the belief revealed by the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. that they would “never have to do that again. ” That lasted for 10 To round out the story we even have a chapter on what PowerPoint years. When we ?nally awoke, it seemed that a lot had happened. does to the results, and the annotated bibliography has been In particular, people were trying to use the Handbook as a text- updated and extended. book even though it lacked the practical chapters needed. There As with the previous editions, the editor enjoyed a tremendous had been tremendous progress in lasers and ?ber-optics and in our amount of good will and cooperation from the 124 authors understanding of the mechanisms underlying photobleaching and involved. Both I, and the light microscopy community in general, phototoxicity. It was time for a new book. I contacted “the usual owe them all a great debt of gratitude. On a more personal note, I suspects” and almost all agreed as long as the deadline was still a would like to thank Kathy Lyons and her associates at Springer for year away.

Dynamics of cyclic nucleotide signaling in neurons

It is important to note that the single photon detection regime of rods constitutes only about three of the six orders of magnitude of ... Neuron 36, 81–91. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(02) 00911-X Burns, M. E., and Pugh, E. N. Jr. (2010).

Author: Pierre Vincent


ISBN: 9782889196463



View: 648


Cyclic nucleotides control a number of neuronal properties including neuronal differentiation, pathfinding, regulation of excitability and synaptic transmission, and control of gene expression. Signaling events mediated by cAMP or cGMP are transient and take place within the complex 3-dimensional structure of the neuronal cell. Signaling events happen on the time scale of seconds to minutes and the biological significance of the temporal dimension remains poorly understood. Structural features of neurons (dendritic spines and branches, cell body, nucleus, axon…) as well as AKAPs and other scaffolding proteins that keep signaling enzymes together and form "signaling microdomains", are critical spatial determinants of signal integration. Finally, the types of enzymes involved in signal integration, which are expressed as a number of different types and splice variants, yield another dimension that determines signal integration properties. Biosensor imaging provides direct temporal and spatial measurement of intracellular signals. This novel approach, together with more conventional methods such as biochemistry, electrophysiology, and modeling, now provide a better understanding of the spatial and temporal features of cyclic nucleotide signal integration in living neurons. This topic aims at providing a better understanding of how neurons are "making sense" of cyclic nucleotide signaling in living neurons.

Neurophysiology of Neuroendocrine Neurons

Glossary 357 2-Photon microscopy A form of confocal microscopy whereby a high power infrared pulsed laser is scanned across a specimen. Each excitation photon carries approximately half the energy required to excite the fluorophore.

Author: William E. Armstrong

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118606773

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 594


Neurophysiology of Neuroendocrine Neurons provides researchersand students with not only an understanding of neuroendocrine cellelectrophysiology, but also an appreciation of how this modelsystem affords access to virtually all parts of the neuron fordetailed study - something unique compared to most types of neuronin the brain. Chapters range from those describing the rich historyand current state of in vivo recordings, highlighting the preciserelationship between the patterns of action potential discharge inthese neurons and hormone release, to in vitro approaches whereneuroendocrine neurons can be precisely identified and theirmembrane properties, morphology, and synaptic responses, directlyexamined. • Written by a team of internationally renownedresearchers, each chapter presents a succinct summary of the verylatest developments in the field • Includes an evaluation of different experimentalapproaches, both in vivo and in vitro, and how the resulting dataare interpreted • Both print and enhanced e-book versions areavailable • Illustrated in full colour throughout This is the first volume in a new Series ‘Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology’ , a co- publicationbetween Wiley and the INF (International Neuroendocrine Federation)that aims to illustrate highest standards and encourage the use ofthe latest technologies in basic and clinical research and hopes toprovide inspiration for further exploration into the exciting fieldof neuroendocrinology.

Neurons Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition

A report, 'Spatiotemporal dynamics of rhythmic spinal interneurons measured with two-photon calcium imaging and coherence analysis,' is newly published data in Journal of Neurophysiology. According to recent research from the United ...


Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781464994722

Category: Medical

Page: 345

View: 415


Neurons—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Neurons. The editors have built Neurons—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Neurons in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Neurons—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at


This paper was presented at a colloquium entitled " Vision : From Photon to Perception , " organized by John Dowling ... 623–627 , January 1996 Colloquium Paper ( vision / neurons / cerebral cortex ) ABSTRACT The visual responses of ...

Author: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309068347

Category: Vision

Page: 87

View: 688


Single Neuron Computation

of white square on a black background is invariant under changes in illumination, even though the photon flux from the black background in bright light may be larger than the photon flux from the white square in dim illumination.

Author: Thomas M. McKenna

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9781483296067

Category: Computers

Page: 644

View: 595


This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real neurons is essential to the design of enhanced processor elements for use in the next generation of ANNs. The book covers computation in dendrites and spines, computational aspects of ion channels, synapses, patterned discharge and multistate neurons, and stochastic models of neuron dynamics. It is the most up-to-date presentation of biophysical and computational methods.

Biomedical Optical Imaging

Helmchen, F., Fee, M. S., Tank, D. W., and Denk, W. (2001) A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope: High-resolution brain ... Hirase, H., Nikolenko, V., Goldberg, J. H., and Yuste, R. (2002) Multiphoton stimulation of neurons.

Author: James G. Fujimoto

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199722293

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 455


Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this technology with exogenous chromophores can selectively enhance contrast for molecular targets as well as supply functional information on processes such as nerve transduction. Novel techniques integrate microscopy with state-of-the-art optics technology, and these include spectral imaging, two photon fluorescence correlation, nonlinear nanoscopy; optical coherence tomography techniques allow functional, dynamic, nanoscale, and cross-sectional visualization. Moving to the macroscopic scale, spectroscopic assessment and imaging methods such as fluorescence and light scattering can provide diagnostics of tissue pathology including neoplastic changes. Techniques using light diffusion and photon migration are a means to explore processes which occur deep inside biological tissues and organs. The integration of these techniques with exogenous probes enables molecular specific sensitivity.

Application of genetically encoded indicators to mammalian central nervous system

“In vivo three-photon calcium imaging of brain activity from layer 6 neurons in mouse brain,” in CLEO, Postdeadline Paper Digest (San Jose, CA: Optical Society of America). doi:10.1364/CLEO_SI.2014.STh5C.2 Ozden, I., Lee, H. M., ...

Author: Yoshiyuki Yamada

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889198047



View: 272


Genetically encoded indicators emerged as promising tools for cell type-specific and chronic recording of neuronal population activity. Since publication of the first prototypical genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (Cameleons) in 1997, we have witnessed remarkable evolution of the field, with rapid improvement of indicator performance as well as expanded application to many model organisms in the neuroscience community. Challenges still remain, however, concerning the mammalian central nervous system: limited sensitivity of indicators to subtle changes in activity, slow signal kinetics, cytotoxicity after a long-term and high-level expression of indicators, and variable performance across cell types. In addition to improvement of the indicators per se, development of strategies that allow combined use of the indicators and optogenetic tools is also desired. In this Research Topic, we recruited top researchers in the field and their young colleagues to present their cutting-edge research as well as insightful opinions on the following subtopics: 1) Latest breakthroughs on development of genetically encoded indicators 2) Novel scientific findings obtained with genetically encoded indicators 3) Wishlist for the next-generation genetically encoded indicators 4) Guideline for selecting an appropriate indicator 5) Optimal methodology for indicator delivery to mammalian CNS

Oswaal ICSE Question Bank Class 10 Biology Book Chapterwise Topicwise Reduced Syllabus For 2022 Exam

Transmission of nerve impulse ○ When a neuron is suitably stimulated, an electrical disturbance is generated which swiftly travel ... Ans. Odd term – Photon Category – Parts of neuron / nerve cell [ICSE Marking Scheme, 2019] Q. 1.

Author: Oswaal Editorial Board

Publisher: Oswaal Books and Learning Private Limited

ISBN: 9789354237195

Category: Study Aids

Page: 184

View: 908


• Chapter wise and Topic wise introduction to enable quick revision. • Coverage of latest typologies of questions as per the Board latest Specimen papers • Mind Maps to unlock the imagination and come up with new ideas. • Concept videos to make learning simple. • Latest Solved Paper with Topper’s Answers • Previous Years’ Board Examination Questions and Marking scheme Answers with detailed explanation to facilitate exam-oriented preparation. • Examiners comments & Answering Tips to aid in exam preparation. • Includes Topics found Difficult & Suggestions for students. • Dynamic QR code to keep the students updated for 2021 Exam paper or any further CISCE notifications/circulars

Associative Memory Cells Basic Units of Memory Trace

After the conversion of photon signals into neural signals at these cone cells, visual nerves transmit these neural signals that carry photon signals to visual cortical neurons in the point-by-point manner. Sound wavelength signals ...

Author: Jin-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811395017

Category: Medical

Page: 275

View: 477


This book focuses on associative memory cells and their working principles, which can be applied to associative memories and memory-relevant cognitions. Providing comprehensive diagrams, it presents the author's personal perspectives on pathology and therapeutic strategies for memory deficits in patients suffering from neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. Associative learning is a common approach to acquire multiple associated signals, including knowledge, experiences and skills from natural environments or social interaction. The identification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying associative memory is important in furthering our understanding of the principles of memory formation and memory-relevant behaviors as well as in developing therapeutic strategies that enhance memory capacity in healthy individuals and improve memory deficit in patients suffering from neurological disease and psychiatric disorders. Although a series of hypotheses about neural substrates for associative memory has been proposed, numerous questions still need to be addressed, especially the basic units and their working principle in engrams and circuits specific for various memory patterns. This book summarizes the developments concerning associative memory cells reported in current and past literature, providing a valuable overview of the field for neuroscientists, psychologists and students.

Make Life Visible

RVF5 demonstrates robust voltage sensitivity in HEK cells (28% ΔF/F per 100 mV) under one- and two-photon illumination. RVF5 can also be used to detect spontaneous and evoked activity in cultured neuron preparations (signal to noise ...

Author: Uehara Kinen Seimei Kagaku Zaidan. International Symposium

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811379086

Category: Cytology

Page: 292

View: 499


This open access book describes marked advances in imaging technology that have enabled the visualization of phenomena in ways formerly believed to be completely impossible. These technologies have made major contributions to the elucidation of the pathology of diseases as well as to their diagnosis and therapy. The volume presents various studies from molecular imaging to clinical imaging. It also focuses on innovative, creative, advanced research that gives full play to imaging technology in the broad sense, while exploring cross-disciplinary areas in which individual research fields interact and pursuing the development of new techniques where they fuse together. The book is separated into three parts, the first of which addresses the topic of visualizing and controlling molecules for life. Th e second part is devoted to imaging of disease mechanisms, while the final part comprises studies on the application of imaging technologies to diagnosis and therapy. Th e book contains the proceedings of the 12th Uehara International Symposium 2017, "Make Life Visible" sponsored by the Uehara Memorial Foundation and held from June 12 to 14, 2017. It is written by leading scientists in the field and is an open access publication under a CC BY 4.0 license.