Food Security and Child Malnutrition

However, food security is a means to nutritional status, and is necessary but not sufficient for nutrition [12]. There exists an extensive body of literature on nutritional status among underfive children and women [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ...

Author: Areej Hassan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781315341538

Category: Medical

Page: 292

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This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. Food security and child malnutrition are at the forefront of our attention, both nationally and internationally. The chapters contained in this compendium include a range of methodologies—literature review, cross-sectional study, longitudinal study, case-control, and even a focus group!—all of which examine this urgent issue, revealing new perspectives and facets of information. The international roster of contributors present a nuanced look at food security and child malnutrition with research into food security measures in many nations around the world. The Children's HealthWatch has been a leader in the work being done in this area, and some of their work is included here. The book is broken into several parts, covering defining food security food security, nutrition, and growth and development food security and mental and physical health food security and child obesity conclusion, with an information study from The Children's Healthwatch on household hardships, public programs, and their associations with the health and development of very young children The range of topics and information presented here will be valuable for those involved with food security advocacy, policymakers, researchers, social service professionals working children and families, and others.

Africa Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition 2019

Feeding Hunger and Insecurity. Field Analysis of Volatile Global Food Commodity Prices, Food Security and Child Malnutrition. ACF International Network. 178 Burkina Faso Joint Assessment. 2008. Impact de la hausse des prix sur les ...

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251320518

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 104

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In the 2017 and 2018 editions of the Africa Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition, FAO reported that the prevalence of undernourishment was rising in the region. The latest data shows that the deterioration has slowed, but there remain 256 million hungry people in Africa today. The report further documents that although many African countries are making progress towards reducing malnutrition, progress is too slow to meet six key nutrition targets, which form part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) monitoring framework and the World Health Assembly global nutrition targets. Food insecurity has been rising in Africa in recent years and the continent is not on track to eliminate hunger by 2030. The 2017, 2018 and this year’s report identify and report in detail on conflict, climate extremes and economic slowdowns and downturns as the key drivers of the rise in food insecurity. In most cases, the economic slowdowns and downturns that contributed to rising undernourishment in 2014–2018 were the result of commodity price falls. Many effective policy tools are available, but their adoption will depend on the availability of fiscal space to effect the desired policy action. In the longer-term, countries must develop policies and invest to achieve a more diversified economy and achieve an inclusive structural transformation. However, sustained economic growth is not enough: reducing inequalities, including gender-based and spatial inequalities, is essential to strengthening household resilience, laying the path to inclusive growth and reducing food insecurity and tackling the multiple forms of malnutrition.

Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries

These are food security, adequate care for mothers and children, and a proper health environ- ment, including access to health services. Associated with each is a set of resources necessary for their achievement. Food security is ...

Author: Lisa C. Smith

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 9780896291140

Category: Medical

Page: 112

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One in three preschool children in developing countries is undernourished. Consequently, they are likely to have impaired immune systems, poor cognitive development, low productivity as adults, and susceptibility to diet-related chronic diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease later in life. Undernourished female preschoolers are likely to grow into undernourished young women who are more likely to give birth to babies who are undernourished even before they are born, thus perpetuating the intergenerational transmission of deprivation. This report sheds light on some of the main causes of child malnutrition, projects how many children are likely to be malnourished in the year 2020 given current trends, and identifies priority actions for reducing malnutrition most quickly in the coming decades.

A review of studies examining the link between food insecurity and malnutrition

The obesity–food insecurity link is most predominant among women in high-income countries, while it is almost absent in men. In addition, food insecurity increases the risk for low birth weight in infants and anaemia in women.

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251309421

Category: Medical

Page: 70

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A review of 120 studies published since 2006 was undertaken to examine the relationship between food insecurity at the household or individual level and the following nutrition indicators: child stunting, child wasting, low birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding of infants < 6 months of age, anaemia in women of reproductive age, child overweight and adult obesity. While there is some evidence of a direct association between food insecurity and stunting for children in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries, evidence of links between food insecurity and either child wasting or overweight is almost absent, with the exception of an association with overweight among girls in middle- and high-income countries. The obesity–food insecurity link is most predominant among women in high-income countries, while it is almost absent in men. In addition, food insecurity increases the risk for low birth weight in infants and anaemia in women. Methodological concerns that pose challenges for valid comparison of results relate to study design, data analysis techniques, use of different indicators of household/individual food security and malnutrition, and the limited availability of high-quality micro-level data from large-scale surveys. Most studies report correlation rather than causal associations between food insecurity and nutrition indicators; longitudinal micro-level data from large-scale surveys can help establish causal association and capture the dynamic nature of food insecurity. Food insecurity emerges as a predictor of undernutrition as well as overweight and obesity, highlighting the need for multisectoral strategies and policies to combat food insecurity and multiple forms of malnutrition.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018

Building climate resilience for food security and nutrition Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, World Health Organization , World Food Programme ...

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251305713

Category: Political Science

Page: 202

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New evidence this year corroborates the rise in world hunger observed in this report last year, sending a warning that more action is needed if we aspire to end world hunger and malnutrition in all its forms by 2030. Updated estimates show the number of people who suffer from hunger has been growing over the past three years, returning to prevailing levels from almost a decade ago. Although progress continues to be made in reducing child stunting, over 22 percent of children under five years of age are still affected. Other forms of malnutrition are also growing: adult obesity continues to increase in countries irrespective of their income levels, and many countries are coping with multiple forms of malnutrition at the same time – overweight and obesity, as well as anaemia in women, and child stunting and wasting. Last year’s report showed that the failure to reduce world hunger is closely associated with the increase in conflict and violence in several parts of the world. In some countries, initial evidence showed climate-related events were also undermining food security and nutrition. This year’s report goes further to show that climate variability and extremes – even without conflict – are key drivers behind the recent rise in global hunger and one of the leading causes of severe food crises and their impact on people’s nutrition and health. Climate variability and exposure to more complex, frequent and intense climate extremes are threatening to erode and reverse gains in ending hunger and malnutrition. Furthermore, hunger is significantly worse in countries where agriculture systems are highly sensitive to rainfall, temperature and severe drought, and where the livelihood of a high proportion of the population depends on agriculture. The findings of this report reveal new challenges to ending hunger, food insecurity and all forms of malnutrition. There is an urgent need to accelerate and scale up actions that strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity of people and their livelihoods to climate variability and extremes. These and other findings are detailed in the 2018 edition of The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World.

Food Security Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis

At the household level, lack of food security, inadequate child care practices, and poor water and sanitation facilities are the underlying causes of malnutrition. Food security is defined as the access to sufficient food for a healthy ...

Author: Suresh Babu

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128204832

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 786

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Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis: Statistical Methods and Applications, Third Edition combines statistical data analysis and computer literacy, applying the results to develop policy alternatives through a series of statistical methods for real world food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty problems. The book presents the latest uses of statistical methods for policy analysis using the open source statistical environment R, in addition to having the original Stata files and applications. A new chapter on obesity brings in new datasets for analysis to effectively demonstrate the use of such data for addressing policy issues. Finally, program evaluation methods which can be directly applied to the data on food security, nutrition, poverty indicators and causal factors are included. This unique, real-world data takes the reader through a "hands-on" approach toward econometric practice whereby they can also test the effects of policy and program interventions. Further, this is the first book to explore actual data with STATA and R statistical packages that also provides a line-by-line guide to the programming and interpretation of results. Provides a fully revised and updated tome on the latest technology, assessment advances and policy insights surrounding food security Combines case-studies with data-based analysis Includes self-contained, downloadable datasets, statistical appendices, computer programs, and interpretations of the results for policy applications

Overcoming Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries

The International Food Policy Research Institute presents the full text of an article entitled "Overcoming Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: Past Achievements and Future Choices," by Lisa C. Smith and Lawrence Haddad and published ...

Author: Lisa C. Smith

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 9780896296343

Category: Social Science

Page: 53

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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020

The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 9: 6–26. 22 Cafiero, C., Viviani, S. & Nord, M. 2018. Food security measurement in a ...

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251329016

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

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Updates for many countries have made it possible to estimate hunger in the world with greater accuracy this year. In particular, newly accessible data enabled the revision of the entire series of undernourishment estimates for China back to 2000, resulting in a substantial downward shift of the series of the number of undernourished in the world. Nevertheless, the revision confirms the trend reported in past editions: the number of people affected by hunger globally has been slowly on the rise since 2014. The report also shows that the burden of malnutrition in all its forms continues to be a challenge. There has been some progress for child stunting, low birthweight and exclusive breastfeeding, but at a pace that is still too slow. Childhood overweight is not improving and adult obesity is on the rise in all regions. The report complements the usual assessment of food security and nutrition with projections of what the world may look like in 2030, if trends of the last decade continue. Projections show that the world is not on track to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030 and, despite some progress, most indicators are also not on track to meet global nutrition targets. The food security and nutritional status of the most vulnerable population groups is likely to deteriorate further due to the health and socio economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The report puts a spotlight on diet quality as a critical link between food security and nutrition. Meeting SDG 2 targets will only be possible if people have enough food to eat and if what they are eating is nutritious and affordable. The report also introduces new analysis of the cost and affordability of healthy diets around the world, by region and in different development contexts. It presents valuations of the health and climate-change costs associated with current food consumption patterns, as well as the potential cost savings if food consumption patterns were to shift towards healthy diets that include sustainability considerations. The report then concludes with a discussion of the policies and strategies to transform food systems to ensure affordable healthy diets, as part of the required efforts to end both hunger and all forms of malnutrition.

The Importance of Women s Status for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries

The underlying causes of malnutrition, which manifest themselves at the household level, are food insecurity, inadequate maternal and child care practices, and poor health environments and services. Food security is access to sufficient ...

Author: Lisa C. Smith

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 9780896291348

Category: Social Science

Page: 164

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Until recently the role of women's social status in determining their children's nutritional health went largely unnoticed. That is, until researchers began to ponder the Asian Enigma- the question of why malnutrition is much more prevalent among children in South Asia than in Sub-Saharan Africa, even though South Asia surpasses Sub-Saharan Africa in most of the principal determinants of child nutrition. This report uses data from 36 countries in three developing regions to establish empirically that women's status, defined as women's power relative to men's, is an important determinant of children's nutritional status. It finds that the pathways through which status influences child nutrition and the strength of that influence differ considerably from one region to another. Where women's status is low, this research proves unequivocally that policies to eradicate gender discrimination not only benefit women but also their children.