Cryptorchidism

Syndromes frequently associated with cryptorchidism [21, 22]. S., growth retardation; M, mental retardation Syndrome S M Aarskog + (+) Carpenter + Cleft lip palate, tetraphocomelia + + Cryptophthalmos (+) Dubowitz + Gorlin ...

Author: F. Hadziselimovic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642860201

Category: Medical

Page: 138

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Ferment, a sign of progress in any scientific field, has previously been lacking in the area of cryptorchidism, where the only activity has been in improving operative methods. Now, however, profound changes in the care of boys with cryptorchidism are being brought about; ideas are arising from a fresh look at comparative anatomy, and histological and experimental observa tions are being supplemented by clinical tests made possible by new hormonal agents. The treatment of cryptorchidism begins with its recognition by the pediatri cian, who until now has shown little interest because of disappointing results from chorionic gonadotropin administration. As for the surgeon, his bent toward restoration of normal anatomical relationships has kept his attention focused on the development of better surgical technics to bring the recalci trant testis into the scrotum. Both specialists have avoided the primordial question of why the testis did not descend properly. If this were known they would treat the cause of cryptorchidism, and not be satisfied merely with trying to correct its end result. As one reads this book, one sees that in most patients cryptorchidism is not caused by some anatomical structure blocking the way or by some deformity of the testis interfering with the transport mechanism. Rather, deficiencies in the hormonal environment of the fetus retard the developmen tal sequences essential to the normal differentiation and descent of the testis. The clinical solution is thus to provide the deficient substances.

Cryptorchidism Causes and Consequences

For example, in our previous study molecular mechanisms underlying co-occurrence of cryptorchidism and cardiovascular diseases in RASopathies have been proposed (17). Foresta et al. reviewed syndromes that include cryptorchidism in ...

Author: Richard Ivell

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889632848

Category:

Page:

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Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum at birth or shortly thereafter, depending on species, or the ascent of previously descended testes later in life. It is the commonest of all congenital conditions in the human representing between 1 and 9% of all male babies born. It is also common in domestic species such as pigs, dogs and horses. Importantly, cryptorchidism is seen as a sentinel of fetal well-being and is associated with other less common ailments such as testis cancer and hypospadias as part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), as well as being linked to maternal smoking and intrauterine growth restriction. It also likely results from maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Surprisingly, we know relatively little about its immediate causes although deficits in fetal hormonal signaling through INSL3 or testosterone and complex genetic susceptibility seem to be involved. The testes may be affected unilaterally or bilaterally with anatomical arrest anywhere between the abdomen to just above the scrotum. Significantly, we need to distinguish between the consequences of cryptorchidism simply due to retention of the testes within the body cavity at abdominal rather than scrotal temperature, and those sequelae which share a common fetal cause. The former are largely correctable by early orchidopexy. In this Research Topic we aim to bring together a broad selection of articles (reviews, original research articles, commentaries and hypotheses) from the leading experts in the field, discussing all aspects of this common congenital condition, and throwing light on its genetic and environmental causes including its relationship to TDS and the biological mechanisms involved, its sequelae, and how these relate to optimal treatment.

Normal Testicular Descent and the Aetiology of Cryptorchidism

The common feature of these three rodent models of cryptorchidism is a defect in CGRP content of the GFN: the androgenresistant or suppressed rodents have a CGRP deficiency while the TS rat hasa CGRP excess.

Author: John M. Hutson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642610264

Category: Science

Page: 56

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This review describes recent research into the cause of testicular descent and discusses two controversial theories on the mechanism. New animal models of cryptorchidism are described which shed light on the possible aetiology. A brief summary is given of current management, highlighting the controversies of timing of surgery, use of hormone therapy and congenital versus 'acquired' undescended testes. New information about germ cell development in the postnatal testis is changing the way we view treatment and the ultimate prognosis.

The Cryptorchid Testis

other hand, a reduced number of germ cells was not observed in all cryptorchid boys, and it is likely that cryptorchidism in humans may be caused by different mechanisms. 123 There are probably two principally different types of human ...

Author: Thomas O. Abney

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000141535

Category: Medical

Page: 184

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Current knowledge concerning both morphological and functional cryptorchid-related alterations in the various testicular compartments is summarized in this valuable new publication. Damage to the germinal epithelium and resulting infertility in both humans and experimental animals as well as the degree of damage to the different stages of germ cell development is discussed. In addition, information concerning hormonal therapy and orchidopexy to reverse cryptorchid-related damage is provided. Morphological alterations in Sertoli and Leydig cells is discussed in terms of cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, alterations in organelle number and characteristics as well as changes in cell-cell junctional complexes. Changes in Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function, including gonadotropin binding, steroidogenesis and other metabolic alterations is also outlined,as well as the influence of altered testicular function on subsequent hypothalamic-pituitary changes. Vascular disruption, the potential role of paracrine substances and direct thermal damage, all of which may be responsible for the resulting detrimental changes in one or more testicular compartments, are considered.

Teratology

Results were analyzed by conditional logis- indicating that they were independent risk tic regression methods for matched case - con factors for cryptorchidism in this data . trol studies ( Breslow and Day , '80 ) .

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Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B4943168

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Cryptorchidism

415 419 421 427 435 441 449 Surgical Indications in the Therapy of Cryptorchidism by G. Cassia , S. Bernasconi , W. Rigamonti and G. Giovannelli Advantages and Limitations of Medical Therapy in Treating Cryptorchidism by E. Ca ciari .

Author: Ju rgen R. Bierich

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015003237206

Category: Cryptorchidie - Congrès

Page: 584

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Cryptorchidism

The mean plasma LH response to LH - RH ( table VI - VIII ) was higher than normal in boys with unilateral cryptorchidism at prepuberty ( P1 , p < 0.01 ) and at midpuberty ( P3 and P4 , p < 0.01 ) . It was also higher than normal in boys ...

Author: Jean-Claude Job

Publisher: S Karger Ag

ISBN: UOM:39015057717913

Category: Medical

Page: 240

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Australian Journal of Biological Sciences

Effect of unilateral and bilateral castration and cryptorchidism on serum gonadotrophins in the rat. J. Endocrinol. 68, 191-6. Greenwood, F. C, Hunter, W. M., and Glover, J. S. (1963). The preparation of 131I-labelled growth hormone of ...

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ISBN: UCAL:B4367433

Category: Biology

Page: 506

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