Recasting Reality

Mitchell, S.D. (2003): Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge. Oyama, S., Griffiths, P.E. and Gray, R.D. (eds.) (
2001): Cycles of Contingency. Developmental Systems and Evolution. MIT Press
 ...

Author: Harald Atmanspacher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540851981

Category: Science

Page: 340

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1 2 Harald Atmanspacher and Hans Primas 1 Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology, Freiburg, Germany,[email protected] 2 ETH Zurich, Switzerland,[email protected] Thenotionofrealityisofsupremesigni?canceforourunderstandingofnature, the world around us, and ourselves. As the history of philosophy shows, it has been under permanent discussion at all times. Traditional discourse about - ality covers the full range from basic metaphysical foundations to operational approaches concerning human kinds of gathering and utilizing knowledge, broadly speaking epistemic approaches. However, no period in time has ex- rienced a number of moves changing and, particularly, restraining traditional concepts of reality that is comparable to the 20th century. Early in the 20th century, quite an in?uential move of such a kind was due to the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, laid out essentially by Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli in the mid 1920s. Bohr’s dictum, quoted by Petersen (1963, p.12), was that “it is wrong to think that the task of physics is to ?nd out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature.” Although this standpoint was not left unopposed – Einstein, Schr ̈ odinger, and others were convinced that it is the task of science to ?nd out about nature itself – epistemic, operational attitudes have set the fashion for many discussions in the philosophy of physics (and of science in general) until today.

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Biological complexity and integrative pluralism. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2003. [Mitchell, 2004] S. Mitchell. Why integrative pluralism? E:CO 6(
1-2), 81-91, 2004. [Mitchell and Dietrich, 2006] S. D. Mitchell and M. R. Dietrich.

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080931227

Category: Philosophy

Page: 952

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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Unsimple Truths

2003. Biological complexity and integrative pluralism. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ———. 2007. e import of uncertainty. Pluralist 2:58–71. ———.
2008a. Comment: Taming causal complexity. In Philosophical issues in
psychiatry: ...

Author: Sandra D. Mitchell

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226532653

Category: Science

Page: 160

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The world is complex, but acknowledging its complexity requires an appreciation for the many roles context plays in shaping natural phenomena. In Unsimple Truths, Sandra Mitchell argues that the long-standing scientific and philosophical deference to reductive explanations founded on simple universal laws, linear causal models, and predict-and-act strategies fails to accommodate the kinds of knowledge that many contemporary sciences are providing about the world. She advocates, instead, for a new understanding that represents the rich, variegated, interdependent fabric of many levels and kinds of explanation that are integrated with one another to ground effective prediction and action. Mitchell draws from diverse fields including psychiatry, social insect biology, and studies of climate change to defend “integrative pluralism”—a theory of scientific practices that makes sense of how many natural and social sciences represent the multi-level, multi-component, dynamic structures they study. She explains how we must, in light of the now-acknowledged complexity and contingency of biological and social systems, revise how we conceptualize the world, how we investigate the world, and how we act in the world. Ultimately Unsimple Truths argues that the very idea of what should count as legitimate science itself should change.

Contemporary Philosophy and Social Science

“On Pluralism and Competition in Evolutionary Explanations.” American Zoologist
32: 135–44. Mitchell, S. 2002. “Integrative Pluralism.” Biology and Philosophy 17:
55–70. Mitchell, S. 2003. Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism.

Author: Michiru Nagatsu

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781474248761

Category: Philosophy

Page: 408

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How should we theorize about the social world? How can we integrate theories, models and approaches from seemingly incompatible disciplines? Does theory affect social reality? This state-of-the-art collection addresses contemporary methodological questions and interdisciplinary developments in the philosophy of social science. Facilitating a mutually enriching dialogue, chapters by leading social scientists are followed by critical evaluations from philosophers of social science. This exchange showcases recent major theoretical and methodological breakthroughs and challenges in the social sciences, as well as fruitful ways in which the analytic tools developed in philosophy of science can be applied to understand these advancements. The volume covers a diverse range of principles, methods, innovations and applications, including scientific and methodological pluralism, performativity of theories, causal inferences and applications of social science to policy and business. Taking a practice-orientated and interactive approach, it offers a new philosophy of social science grounded in and relevant to the emerging social science practice.

Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics

Mitchell, Sandra D. 2003. Biological complexity and integrative pluralism.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mitchell, Sandra D. 2009. Unsimple
truths. Science, complexity, and policy. Chicago/London: University of Chicago
Press.

Author: Hsiang-Ke Chao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400724549

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

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This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.

Reasoning in Biological Discoveries

Elliott Sober From a Biological Point of View Robert Brandon Concepts and
Methods in Evolutionary Biology Peter ... G. Norton Searching for Sustainability
Sandra D. Mitchell Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism Joseph
LaPorte ...

Author: Lindley Darden

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458612

Category: Science

Page:

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Reasoning in Biological Discoveries brings together a series of essays, which focus on one of the most heavily debated topics of scientific discovery. Collected together and richly illustrated, Darden's essays represent a groundbreaking foray into one of the major problems facing scientists and philosophers of science. Divided into three sections, the essays focus on broad themes, notably historical and philosophical issues at play in discussions of biological mechanism; and the problem of developing and refining reasoning strategies, including interfield relations and anomaly resolution. Darden summarizes the philosophy of discovery and elaborates on the role that mechanisms play in biological discovery. Throughout the book, she uses historical case studies to extract advisory reasoning strategies for discovery. Examples in genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, neuroscience and evolutionary biology reveal the process of discovery in action.

Philosophy of Experimental Biology

Elliott Sober From a Biological Point of View Robert Brandon Concepts and
Methods in Evolutionary Biology Peter ... Searching for Sustainability Sandra D.
Mitchell Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism Gregory J. Cooper The ...

Author: Marcel Weber

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139453912

Category: Science

Page: 358

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Philosophy of Experimental Biology explores some central philosophical issues concerning scientific research in experimental biology, including genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and microbiology. It seeks to make sense of the explanatory strategies, concepts, ways of reasoning, approaches to discovery and problem solving, tools, models and experimental systems deployed by scientific life science researchers and also integrates developments in historical scholarship, in particular the New Experimentalism. It concludes that historical explanations of scientific change that are based on local laboratory practice need to be supplemented with an account of the epistemic norms and standards that are operative in science. This book should be of interest to philosophers and historians of science as well as to scientists.

Information and Meaning in Evolutionary Processes

biology. General Editor Michael Ruse Florida State University Advisory Board
Michael Donoghue Yale University Jean ... Norton Searching for Sustainability
Sandra D. Mitchell Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism Joseph
LaPorte ...

Author: William F. Harms

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139451626

Category: Science

Page: 268

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This book is intended to help transform epistemology - the traditional study of knowledge - into a rigorous discipline by removing conceptual roadblocks and developing formal tools required for a fully naturalized epistemology. The evolutionary approach which Harms favours begins with the common observation that if our senses and reasoning were not reliable, then natural selection would have eliminated them long ago. The challenge for some time has been how to transform these informal musings about evolutionary epistemology into a rigorous theoretical discipline capable of complementing current scientific studies of the evolution of cognition with a philosophically defensible account of meaning and justification.

Philosophy and Biodiversity

Elliott Sober From a Biological Point of View Robert Brandon Concepts and
Methods in Evolutionary Biology Peter ... Bryan G. Norton Searching for
Sustainability Sandra D. Mitchell Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism
Greg Cooper ...

Author: Markku Oksanen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455494

Category: Science

Page:

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This important collection focuses on the nature and importance of biodiversity. The concept is clarified and its intrinsic and instrumental value are discussed. Even though the term biodiversity was invented in the 1980s to promote the cause of species conservation, discussions on biological diversity go back to Plato. There are many controversies surrounding biodiversity and a few of them are examined here: What is worthy of protection or restoration and what is the acceptable level of costs? Is it permissible to kill sentient animals to promote native populations? Can species be reintroduced if they have disappeared a long time ago? How should the responsibilities for biodiversity be shared? This book will be of interest to philosophers of science and biologists, but also to anyone interested in conservation and the environment.

Philosophical issues in psychiatry III

Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. Mitchell, S.D. (2003). Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1 A pluralist who has taken up in detail
the ...

Author: Kenneth S. Kendler

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191038860

Category: Medical

Page: 408

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Psychiatry has long struggled with the nature of its diagnoses. The problems raised by questions about the nature of psychiatric illness are particularly fascinating because they sit at the intersection of philosophy, empirical psychiatric/psychological research, measurement theory, historical tradition and policy. In being the only medical specialty that diagnoses and treats mental illness, psychiatry has been subject to major changes in the last 150 years. This book explores the forces that have shaped these changes and especially how substantial "internal" advances in our knowledge of the nature and causes of psychiatric illness have interacted with a plethora of external forces that have impacted on the psychiatric profession. It includes contributions from philosophers of science with an interest in psychiatry, psychiatrists and psychologists with expertise in the history of their field and historians of psychiatry. Each chapter is accompanied by an introduction and a commentary. The result is a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders, and a book that is compelling reading for those in the field of mental health, history of science and medicine, and philosophy.

Thinking Complexity

I will argue that integrative pluralism is the best description of the relationship of
scientific theories , models , and explanations of complex biological phenomena .
Complexity is endemic in biology , and various features of multicomponent ...

Author: Paul Cilliers

Publisher: Isce Pub

ISBN: PSU:000061166134

Category: Philosophy

Page: 259

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This volume examines the impact of complexity theory on various disciplines, especially the area of philosophy. (Philosophy)

Causality

Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge. Moneta, Alessio (2007). 'Mediating beetween causes and probability
: the use of graphical models in econometrics'. In Causality and probability in the
 ...

Author: Phyllis Illari

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191639685

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

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Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

Biological complexity and integrative pluralism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge
University Press. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. DIVERSITY Social diversity—with respect to
 ...

Author: D. C. Phillips

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781483364759

Category: Education

Page: 952

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Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Ethics in Public Health and Health Policy

Biological complexity and integrative pluralism. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. Nord, E. 1999. Cost-value analysis in health care. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. Pashayan, N., et al. 2011. Polygenic susceptibility to
prostate ...

Author: Daniel Strech

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400763746

Category: Philosophy

Page: 229

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Ethical issues associated with public health and health policy--related, for example, to pandemic plans and vaccination policies (c.f. SARS or pandemic influenza), preventive measures like screening (e.g. for breast cancer or dementia) or health information campaigns, social inequalities or health care rationing--are increasing in worldwide importance. Evidence-based information for valid benefit-harm assessment is often rare and hard to get for participants in public health interventions. Program implementation often disregards requirements of fair decision-making processes (like public participation, transparency, etc.). Originating from an international conference (based on a call for abstracts and external review), this volume contains contributions from a group of experts from multiple disciplines and countries. It covers (i) conceptual foundations of public health ethics, (ii) methodological approaches and (iii) normative analyses of specific issues and cases. Bridging theoretical foundations with practical applications, this volume provides a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners and students concerned with public health practice and policy.

Comptes Rendus Philosophiques

One nagging question that thus remained present after having read Mitchell ' s
book was whether the need for integrative pluralism is merely an idiosyncrasy of
biology , or of the sciences that study complex systems , or whether it constitutes
a ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105121706720

Category: Philosophy

Page:

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The Pluralist

Importantly , in order to debunk the dualist position , he undermines the pluralist
stance ' s commitments that a plurality of ... See Sandra D . Mitchell , Biological
Complexity and Integrative Pluralism , Cambridge , UK : Cambridge UP , 2003 ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000059807445

Category: Philosophy

Page:

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Cancer Bioinformatics

Back to the biology in systems biology : what can we learn from biomolecular
networks ? Briefi . Funct . ... Dynamic and integrative cell signaling : challenges
for the new biology . Biotechnol . ... Biological Complexity and Integrative
Pluralism .

Author: Sylvia Nagl

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: UCSC:32106018649266

Category: Medical

Page: 287

View: 418

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"The development and application of bioinformatics tools to basic and translational cancer research is, in fact, a rapidly expanding field that deserves a timely review. Therefore, a publication of this type is needed. The editors have done an excellent job in recruiting well-established scientists to author the various chapters of the book." —Dieter Naf, Jackson Laboratory, USA Cancer bioinformatics is now emerging as a new interdisciplinary field, which is facilitating an unprecedented synthesis of knowledge arising from the life and clinical sciences. This groundbreaking title provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the enormous range of bioinformatics for cancer therapy development from the laboratory to clinical trials. It functions as a guide to integrated data exploitation and synergistic knowledge discovery, and support the consolidation of the interdisciplinary research community involved.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Biology and Philosophy 17 ( 2002 ) : 33 – 53 . Millstein , Roberta . “ Selection vs .
Drift : A Response to Brandon ' s Reply . ” Biology and Philosophy 20 ( 1 ) ( 2005
) : 171 - 175 . Mitchell , Sandra . Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism ...

Author: Donald M. Borchert

Publisher: Thomson Gale/MacMillan Reference USA

ISBN: 002865787X

Category: Electronic books

Page: 771

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This volume, covering entries from "Oakeshott, Michael" to "Presupposition," presents articles on Eastern and Western philosophies, medical and scientific ethics, the Holocaust, terrorism, censorship, biographical entries, and much more.

Evolution Explanation and Unity of Science

In Keller , E. F. and Lloyd , E. A. , editors , Keywords in Evolutionary Biology ,
pages 334-340 . Harvard ... Theoretical pluralism and the scientific study of
behavior . In Kellert , L. ... Biological Complexity and Integrative Pluralism .
Cambridge ...

Author: Angela Potochnik

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105129644220

Category:

Page: 199

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