Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics

This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

Author: Tobias Dörr

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889631520

Category:

Page:

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Bacterial cells are encased in a cell wall, which is required to maintain cell shape and to confer physical strength to the cell. The cell wall allows bacteria to cope with osmotic and environmental challenges and to secure cell integrity during all stages of bacterial growth and propagation, and thus has to be sufficiently rigid. Moreover, to accommodate growth processes, the cell wall at the same time has to be a highly dynamic structure: During cell enlargement, division, and differentiation, bacteria continuously remodel, degrade, and resynthesize their cell wall, but pivotally need to assure cell integrity during these processes. Finally, the cell wall is also adjusted according to both environmental constraints and metabolic requirements. However, how exactly this is achieved is not fully understood. The major structural component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), a mesh-like polymer of glycan chains interlinked by short-chain peptides, constituting a net-like macromolecular structure that has historically also termed murein or murein sacculus. Although the basic structure of PG is conserved among bacteria, considerable variations occur regarding cross-bridging, modifications, and attachments. Moreover, different structural arrangements of the cell envelope exist within bacteria: a thin PG layer sandwiched between an inner and outer membrane is present in Gram-negative bacteria, and a thick PG layer decorated with secondary glycopolymers including teichoic acids, is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, even more complex envelope structures exist, such as those found in mycobacteria. Crucially, all bacteria possess a multitude of often redundant lytic enzymes, termed “autolysins”, and other cell wall modifying and synthesizing enzymes, allowing to degrade and rebuild the various structures covering the cells. However, how cell wall turnover and cell wall biosynthesis are coordinated during different stages of bacterial growth is currently unclear. The mechanisms that prevent cell lysis during these processes are also unclear. This Research Topic focuses on the dynamics of the bacterial cell wall, its modifications, and structural rearrangements during cell growth and differentiation. It pays particular attention to the turnover of PG, its breakdown and recycling, as well as the regulation of these processes. Other structures, for example, secondary polymers such as teichoic acids, which are dynamically changed during bacterial growth and differentiation, are also covered. In recent years, our view on the bacterial cell envelope has undergone a dramatic change that challenged old models of cell wall structure, biosynthesis, and turnover. This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

The Bacterial Flagellum

This volume examines the structure and dynamics of the bacterial flagellum using bacterial genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, structural biology, biophysics, cell biology, and molecular dynamics simulation.

Author: Tohru Minamino

Publisher: Humana

ISBN: 1493983415

Category: Science

Page: 326

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This volume examines the structure and dynamics of the bacterial flagellum using bacterial genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, structural biology, biophysics, cell biology, and molecular dynamics simulation. The chapters are divided into 4 parts: Part I describes flagellar type III protein exports, assembly, and gene regulation in S. enterica; Part II explains how to isolate the flagella from the bacterial cell bodies, and further explains how to conduct high-resolution structural and functional analyses of the flagellar motor; Part III talks about how to measure flagellar motor rotation over a wide range of external load, how to measure ion motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane, and how to measure dynamic properties of the flagellar motor proteins by fluorescence microscopy with single molecule precision; and Part IV explores the structure and function of Spirochetal, Vibrio, Shewanella, and Magnetococcus flagellar motors. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and comprehensive, The Bacterial Flagellum: Methods and Protocols aims to provide valuable and vital research to aid in the investigation of the bacterial flagellum resulting from various bacterial species.

Molecular Biology

Recipient of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) Award.Molecular Biology: Structure and Dynamics of Genomes and Proteomes illustrates the essential principles behind the transmission and expression of genetic information at the ...

Author: Jordanka Zlatanova

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 9781317633228

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 379

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Recipient of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) Award.Molecular Biology: Structure and Dynamics of Genomes and Proteomes illustrates the essential principles behind the transmission and expression of genetic information at the level of DNA, RNA, and proteins.This textbook emphasizes the experimental basis of discovery and the most recent a

The Plant Cell Wall

This book specifically discusses the cell types and cell walls in vascular plants, as well as the classification and constitution of cell wall.

Author: S. M. Siegel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483184692

Category: Science

Page: 144

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International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology: The Plant Cell Wall, Volume 2 is a four-chapter text that covers the botanical aspects of cell wall. This book specifically discusses the cell types and cell walls in vascular plants, as well as the classification and constitution of cell wall. This book deals first with the fractionation, biosynthesis, components, formation regulation, and breakdown of cell wall. These topics are followed by discussions on cell wall polysaccharides, lignin structures, cell wall changes during cell growth, and the analysis of the wall-lysing enzymes. Other chapters examine the types and chemical components of cell wall carbohydrates and the surface processes in lignin polymer formations. A study of the phylogenetic aspects of lignins and lignin synthesis is presented. A chapter is devoted to the classification and features of plant species. The remaining chapter focuses on the non-vascular plants, protista, and metazoa. The book can provide useful information to scientists, botanists, students, and researchers.

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Enzyme structures of the bacterial peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid biogenesis pathways. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 53, 45–58. Chien, A. C., Zareh, S. K. G., Wang, Y. M., & Levin, P. A. (2012).

Author: Geoffrey M. Gadd

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128207086

Category: Science

Page: 192

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Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 112, continues the comprehensive reach of this widely read and authoritative review source in microbiology. Users will find invaluable references and information on a variety of areas. Chapters in this new release include discussions of Microbial mercury transformation: focus on molecules and functions, Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis, Clockwork microbial worlds , Molecular engineering to improve the levels of bioproducts from agricultural and forestry waste by filamentous fungi, Multi-species Biofilms for Resource Recovery from Wastewater, Evasion of host defenses by intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, A genomic analysis on stress-responses in C. glabrata and their relevance in pathogenesis and drug resistance, and more. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of microbiology Includes discussions on the role of specific molecules in pathogen life stages and interactions, and much more

Molecular Mechanisms Determining Bacterial Cell Shape

The insights gained from these studies will enable a wide range of applications spanning the identification of novel antibiotic targets and the optimization of biomaterials production by bacterial cells.

Author: Ti-Yu Lin

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1237283520

Category:

Page: 238

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Bacteria exhibit a variety of shapes, including: cocci, bacilli, and spirochetes. Cell shape influences the spatial and temporal dynamics of processes that are essential for growth and replication in bacteria and is connected to pathogenicity and evasion of the mammalian immune system. Several bacterial cell-shape determinants have been proposed, including: 1) the cytoskeleton as an internal scaffolding, and 2) the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall that resists osmotic pressure and maintains cell shape. However, some bacteria lack these subcellular components and yet retain distinct cellular shapes. This observation raises the question of whether bacteria use other shape-determining strategies and provides an opportunity to explore the biochemical evolution of cell shape across bacteria. The phospholipid membrane is another cellular structure that may regulate the shape of bacteria, and yet the impact of this cellular structure on bacterial morphology has been largely overlooked. Bacterial cell membranes consist of the three major families of phospholipids: phosphatidylethanolamine is zwitterionic, and phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin are anionic. The composition of cell membranes plays a fundamental role in bacterial cell biology. This dissertation describes how cardiolipin regulates cell morphology and influences bacterial adaptation to environmental stress. We observed that a cardiolipin deficiency in Rhodobacter sphaeroides changes the shape of cells and impairs biofilm formation. We demonstrated that cardiolipin participates in bacterial cell shape determination by regulating peptidoglycan precursor biosynthesis. In this dissertation, we also developed a new method for optimizing the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli by engineering its cell shape. The insights gained from these studies will enable a wide range of applications spanning the identification of novel antibiotic targets and the optimization of biomaterials production by bacterial cells.

Polysaccharides

Synytsya, A. et al., Cell wall polysaccharides of marine algae, in: Springer Handbook of Marine Biotechnology, pp. 543–590, Springer, Berlin, ... C., Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics. Front. Microbiol., 10, 2051, 2019. 49.

Author: Inamuddin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119711384

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 784

View: 955

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This book provides the whole spectrum of polysaccharides from basic concepts to commercial market applications. Chapters cover various types of sources, classification, properties, characterization, processing, rheology and fabrication of polysaccharide-based materials and their composites and gels. The applications of polysaccharides include in cosmetics, food science, drug delivery, biomedicine, biofuel production, marine, packaging, chromatography and environmental remediation. It also reviews the fabrication of inorganic and carbon nanomaterials from polysaccharides. The book incorporates industrial applications and will fill the gap between the exploration works in the laboratory and viable applications in related ventures.

Secondary Xylem Biology

The book builds on a basic comprehension of xylem structure and development before delving into other important issues such as fungal and bacterial degradation and biofuel conversion.

Author: Yoon Soo Kim

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128025291

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 748

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Secondary Xylem Biology: Origins, Functions, and Applications provides readers with many lenses from which to understand the whole scope and breadth of secondary xylem. The book builds on a basic comprehension of xylem structure and development before delving into other important issues such as fungal and bacterial degradation and biofuel conversion. Chapters are written by recognized experts who have in-depth knowledge of their specific areas of expertise. It is a single information source containing high quality content, information, and knowledge related to the understanding of biology in woody plants and their applications. Offers an in-depth understanding of biology in woody plants Includes topics such as abiotic stresses on secondary xylem formation, fungal degradation of cell walls, and secondary xylem for bioconversion Progresses from basic details of wood structure, to dynamics of wood formation, to degradation