Attribution Theory

An Organizational Perspective Mark Martinko. Much of the attribution theory
research is based on a rational model of information processing , derived from
Kelley's ( 1973 ) causal attribution framework . Rational models have been
increasingly ...

Author: Mark Martinko

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1884015190

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 948


With Special Contributions from Bernard Weiner Ph.D. (UCLA) and Robert Lord Ph.D. (Univ. of Akron) Attribution theory is concerned with peoples causal explanation for outcomes: successes and failures. The basic premise is that beliefs about outcomes are a primary determinant of expectations and, consequently, future behavior. Attribution theory articulates how this process occurs and provides a basis for understanding that translates into practical action. Attribution Theory: An Organizational Perspective serves as a primary sourcebook of attribution theory as it relates to management and organizational behavior. The text provides an integrated explanation of the role and function of attribution theory in the organization. This important new book contains original empirical research relating attributions to leader evaluations, reactions to information technologies, management of diverse work groups, achievement, and executive succession and power. The contributors are from a variety of disciplines including management, psychology, education, educational psychology, and sociology.


Introduction This book is concerned with attribution theory and research—that is,
the scientific study of naive theories and commonsense explanations. I would like
to begin by presenting a few facts about attribution theory and research, how ...

Author: Friedrich Försterling

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317774778

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 995


Attribution concerns the scientific study of naive theories and common-sense explanations. This text provides a thorough and up-to-date introduction to the field, combining comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theoretical ideas and most significant research with an overview of more recent developments. The author begins with a broad overview of the central questions and basic assumptions of attribution research. This is followed by discussion of the ways in which causal explanations determine reactions to success or failure and how our causal explanations of other people's actions shape our behaviour toward them. The manner in which attributions may shape communication, and how people often quite indirectly communicate their beliefs about causality, is also explained. Finally, the issue of changing causal connections in training and therapy is addressed. With end of chapter summaries, further reading and exercises to illustrate key attribution phenomena, Attribution will be essential reading for students of social psychology and associated areas such as personality, educational, organisational and clinical psychology.

Authorship Attribution

With the advent of corpus linguistics, authorship attribution (or to use another
near-synonymous term, "stylometry" ) has become a popular and productive area
of research. The principles, however, remain the same. We can thus define ...

Author: Patrick Juola

Publisher: Now Publishers Inc

ISBN: 9781601981189

Category: Computers

Page: 104

View: 263


Authorship Attribution surveys the history and present state of the discipline, presenting some comparative results where available. It also provides a theoretical and empirically-tested basis for further work. Many modern techniques are described and evaluated, along with some insights for application for novices and experts alike.

Scalability Issues in Authorship Attribution

2010), contains texts of disputed and possibly also collaborative authorship, a
characteristic that makes it unfit for systematic evaluation of approaches, but
nevertheless an interesting case for any authorship attribution approach. A third
reason ...

Author: Kim Luyckx

Publisher: ASP / VUBPRESS / UPA

ISBN: 9789054878230

Category: Computers

Page: 196

View: 336


This book is about authorship attribution, the task that aims to identify the author of a text, given a model of authorial style based on texts of known authorship. Computational authorship attribution does not rely on in-depth reading, but rather automates the process. This book investigates the behavior of a text categorization approach to the task when confronted with scalability issues. By addressing the issues of experimental design, data size, and author set size, the dissertation demonstrates whether the approach taken is valid in experiments with limited or sufficient data, and with small or large sets of authors. "Scalability issues in authorship attribution" provides the first in-depth and systematic study of the so-called scalability issues in authorship attribution. Above all, the book stresses the importance of methodology: even the smallest of decisions can significantly influence the outcome and reliability of an experiment.

Fixed Income Attribution

Andrew Colin. Table 12.7 Returns from sector curve attribution analysis Return
from a sector curve attribution analysis Yield return Treasury curve return Sector
return Liquidity/security-specific return ...

Author: Andrew Colin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470013588

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 162

View: 472


Fixed income attribution is by its very nature a complex and mathematically demanding topic, and there is little information available on this area. Fixed Income Attribution has been written to fill this tremendous void. This comprehensive resource contains both theoretical and practical information about running and understanding fixed income attribution, including the mathematics of attribution, practical limitations, benchmarks, presentation tools, and choosing and running an attribution system. Filled with insightful examples and expert advice, Fixed Income Attribution is the perfect source of information for those working in this complex environment.


Attribution. Theories. Gifford Weary1, Melinda A. Stanley2 and JohnH. Harvey3
Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210,USA
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of TexasMedical ...

Author: Gifford Weary

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461236085

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 511


This book initially was conceived in 1986 by Weary and Harvey as a revi sion and update of their 1981 Perspectives on Attributional Processes (pub lished by Wm. C. Brown," Dubuque, Iowa). However: toe extensive nature of recent work on attributional processes and the opportunity to collabo rate with Melinda Stanley as a coauthor led to a plan to develop a more comprehensive work than the 1981 book. It definitely is an amalgam of our interests in social and clinical psychology. It represents our commitment to basic theoretical and empirical inquiry blended with the applications of ideas and methods to understanding attribution in more naturalistic set tings, and as it unfolds in the lives of different kinds of people coping with diverse problems of living. The book represents a commitment also to the breadth of approach to attribution questions epitomized by Fritz Heider's uniquely creative mind and work in pioneering the area. To us, the attribu tional approach is not a sacrosanct school of thought on the human condi tion. It is, rather, a body of ideas and findings that we find to be highly useful in our work as social (JH and GW) and clinical (GW and MS) psychology scholars. It is an inviting approach that, as we shall describe in the book, brings together ideas and work from different fields in psychology-all concerned with the pervasive and inestimab1e importance of interpretive activity in human experience and behavior.

Attribution Theory

As a theory of causal explanations for success and failure, attribution research
found a natural context for study in the achievement domain. Inspired largely by
Weiner's empirical and theoretical contributions, a vast literature has
accumulated ...

Author: Sandra Graham

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317784227

Category: Psychology

Page: 244

View: 111


This unusual volume begins with a historical overview of the growth of attribution theory, setting the stage for the three broad domains of application that are addressed in the remainder of the book. These include applications to: achievement strivings in the classroom and the sports domain; issues of mental health such as analyses of stress and coping and interpretations of psychotherapy; and personal and business conflict such as buyer- seller disagreement, marital discord, dissension in the workplace, and international strife. Because the chapters in Attribution Theory are more research-based than practice- oriented, this book will be of great interest and value to an audience of applied psychologists.

For Attribution

Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards: Summary of
an International Workshop National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs,
Board on Research Data and Information Paul E. Uhlir ...

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309267281

Category: Computers

Page: 238

View: 971


The growth of electronic publishing of literature has created new challenges, such as the need for mechanisms for citing online references in ways that can assure discoverability and retrieval for many years into the future. The growth in online datasets presents related, yet more complex challenges. It depends upon the ability to reliably identify, locate, access, interpret, and verify the version, integrity, and provenance of digital datasets. Data citation standards and good practices can form the basis for increased incentives, recognition, and rewards for scientific data activities that in many cases are currently lacking in many fields of research. The rapidly-expanding universe of online digital data holds the promise of allowing peer-examination and review of conclusions or analysis based on experimental or observational data, the integration of data into new forms of scholarly publishing, and the ability for subsequent users to make new and unforeseen uses and analyses of the same data-either in isolation, or in combination with, other datasets. The problem of citing online data is complicated by the lack of established practices for referring to portions or subsets of data. There are a number of initiatives in different organizations, countries, and disciplines already underway. An important set of technical and policy approaches have already been launched by the U.S. National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and other standards bodies regarding persistent identifiers and online linking. The workshop summarized in For Attribution-Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards: Summary of an International Workshop was organized by a steering committee under the National Research Council's (NRC's) Board on Research Data and Information, in collaboration with an international CODATA-ICSTI Task Group on Data Citation Standards and Practices. The purpose of the symposium was to examine a number of key issues related to data identification, attribution, citation, and linking to help coordinate activities in this area internationally, and to promote common practices and standards in the scientific community.

Practical Portfolio Performance Measurement and Attribution

Investment Manager ABC XYZ as of 31.03.2001 Return Attribution and Risk
Attribution Report for Equity Portfolio Return and Risk Attribution Report for:
PORTFOLIO XYZ Period: . 1.1.2000 - 30.03.2001 Reference Currency: EUR
Benchmark: ...

Author: Carl R. Bacon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470856802

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 197


Practical Performance Measurement and Attribution provides a clear introduction to the subject of performance measurement. Focusing more on the practical use and calculation of performance returns rather than the academic background it will help readers gain a clear understanding of the role and implications of performance measurement in today's financial environment. "Carl’s book is a ‘must have’ resource - the complete A to Z of the increasingly complex field of performance measurement." Glenn Solomon, Global Head of Institutional Clients, Investment Reporting & Performance, BNP Paribas Securities Services "Internationally renowned authority Carl Bacon has provided what one would expect – an exceptionally well written and practical resource that every investment performance measurement professional should own." David Spaulding, President, The Spaulding Group "Carl Bacon is one of the most knowledgeable professionals I know on the subject of Performance Measurement. He has been a pioneer, leader, and teacher at the forefront of developments in global investment performance standards, performance attribution technique, and risk measurement. I am very pleased he has written this timely and useful book as a complete reference and explanation update on these important subjects." James Hollis, Managing Director, Cutter Associates "Though the subject matter is complex, Carl strikes the right balance between theory and reality. This book should have a permanent spot on the desk of every performance practitioner. I will refer to it often." Karyn Vincent, CFA, Vincent Performance Services LLC "Whether you are a provider or a user of Performance Analysis, this book is well structured, informative and truly a practical guide in every sense." Gary Hilldrup, Global Head Performance, Risk & Client Reporting, Fortis Investments

Migration and Citizenship Attribution

This article examines how the change in Ireland's demographic condition from a
country of emigration to one of large-scale immigration has affected citizenship
attribution. The article outlines the origin of Irish citizenship laws, with particular ...

Author: Maarten Peter Vink

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135699284

Category: Political Science

Page: 162

View: 119


How do states in Western Europe deal with the challenges of migration for citizenship? The legal relationship between a person and a state is becoming increasingly blurred in our mobile, transnational world. This volume deals with the membership dimension of citizenship, specifically the formal rules that states use to attribute citizenship. These nationally-specific rules determine how and under what conditions citizenship is attributed by states to individuals: how one can acquire formal citizenship status, but also how this status can be lost. Migration and Citizenship Attribution observes various trends in citizenship policies since the early 1980s, analysing historical patterns and recent changes across Western Europe as well as examining specific developments in individual countries. Authors explore the equal treatment of women and men with regard to descent-based citizenship attribution, along with the process of convergence between countries with ‘ius soli’ and ‘ius sanguinis’ traditions with regard to birthright provisions. They consider how the increasing acceptance of multiple citizenship is reflected in a dual trend to abolish, or at least to moderate, the renunciation of the citizenship of origin as a condition for naturalisation, and also to restrict provisions of loss of citizenship due to voluntary acquisition of a foreign citizenship. Another trend observed and discussed is the introduction by many countries of language tests and integration conditions in the naturalisation procedure, with some countries now concluding the naturalisation process by means of a US-styled citizenship ceremony. Contributors also explore the various things taken into account under state citizenship laws such as statelessness, or membership of the European Union. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

New Models New Extensions of Attribution Theory

The Third Attribution-Personality Theory Conference, CSPP-LA, 1988 Seymour L.
Zelen. made —aggressive behaviorsare producedby anaggressive person, nota
shy one. To be sure, the theory (and subsequent data) suggest conditions ...

Author: Seymour L. Zelen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461231264

Category: Psychology

Page: 212

View: 229


Attribution theory has applications in traditional as well as new psychological fields of investigation. This book pre- sents new issues and new research in examining attributions from such diverse viewpoints as existential attributions to information processing and decision making to examining fee- lings of success in terms of corporate scripts in the work- place.

Implementation of a Performance Attribution System in a Funds Management Company Comparison of Arithmetic and Geometric Performance Attribution 62 3.2.
10 Fixed Income Attribution.......................................................63 Differences
between Equity and Fixed Income Attribution 63 Bond Attribution ...

Author: Marc Vogel


ISBN: 9783832486693

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 153

View: 515


Inhaltsangabe:Introduction: Within this thesis fundamentals of performance attribution are treated as well as the practical implementation of such a system. However, for many people who already asked to receive a copy of this work, the most important part will be the analysis of the (partly internet based) questionnaire revolving around performance attribution. The theoretical part contains the fundamentals of portfolio theory and the constructive CAPM, followed by basics of portfolio management. Next topics are the estimation of risk and performance for investment portfolios. The finishing touch is done by introduction of performance attribution theories handling both, equity and bond attribution. Within the practical part a short analysis of the affected asset management company is performed, accompanied by research of performance presentation. A questionnaire has been sent to 80 non-banks of the German HDAX index as well as to all members of the BVI. Furthermore an internet based version of the questionnaire has been introduced to a large number of institutional clients. The analysis of this questionnaire is one of the topics of this work. For the affected company the results from the questionnaire are used to identify the competitors possibilities and the clients needs, resulting in fundamental ideas for the catalogue of requirements. The analysis of the investment process and based on this the choice and the implementation of a performance attribution system are the last parts of this work. Still it has to be mentioned that recommendations for organizational changes are part of implementation. There are three reasons why this thesis has been prepared. The first one is quite trivial. As performance attribution is more and more present in the market, deeper knowledge of it shall be gained for the affected company. Primarily the department for quantitative research and information technology has to come up with this knowledge to act as a multiplier and to ascertain technological and / or organizational requirements for its implementation. Another scope of this work is to determine the actual status of performance attribution performed by competitors. To get this information competition is referred to and likewise clients of competitors are interviewed. To benefit from this thesis not only the theoretical background will be looked upon, but there will be approaches to completely integrate performance attribution. Proposed usage will [...]

Political Accounts and Attribution Process

Attribution of Political Character In the service of reaching a meaningful
understanding of another's behavior, attribution processes also manifest
themselves in perceptions of dispositional, or personality, characteristics (Jones
and Davis, 1965) ...


Publisher: Cambridge University Press




View: 911


The Attribution of Blame

A theory of the attribution of blame must describe how people answer three
fundamental questions: “What is the cause of this event or action,” “Is anyone
responsible for its occurrence,” and “Who is to blame for the event?” But what
exactly is ...

Author: K.G. Shaver

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461250944

Category: Psychology

Page: 194

View: 811


How can we identify the causes of events? What does it mean to assert that someone is responsible for a moral affront? Under what circumstances should we blame others for wrongdoing? The related, but conceptually distinct, issues of causality, responsibility, and blameworthiness that are the subject of this book play a critical role in our everyday social encounters. As very young children we learn to assert that "it wasn't my fault," or that "I didn't mean to do it." Responsibility and blame follow us into adulthood, as personal or organizational failings require explanation. Although judgments of moral accountability are quickly made and adamantly defended, the process leading to those judgments is not as simple as it might seem. Psychological research on causality and responsibility has not taken complete advantage of a long tradition of philosophical analysis of these concepts. Philosophical discussions, for their part, have not been sufficiently I1ware of the psychological realities. An assignment of blame is a social explanation. It is the outcome of a process that begins with an event having negative consequences, involves judgments about causality, personal responsibility, and possible mitigation. The result can be an assertion, or a denial, of individual blameworthiness. The purpose of this book is to develop a comprehensive theory of how people assign blame.

Performance Evaluation and Attribution of Security Portfolios

Chapter 13 ABSTRACT In this chapter an introduction to the attribution analysis
of fixed income portfolios is given. After an introduction to yield curves and
related topics, the methodology of a yield-curve based analysis, which relies on
the full ...

Author: Bernd R. Fischer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080926520

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 724

View: 186


Just how successful is that investment? Measuring portfolio performance requires evaluation (measuring portfolio results against benchmarks) and attribution (determining individual results of the portfolio's parts), In this book, a professor and an asset manager show readers how to use theories, applications, and real data to understand these tools. Unlike others, Fischer and Wermers teach readers how to pick the theories and applications that fit their specific needs. With material inspired by the recent financial crisis, Fischer and Wermers bring new clarity to defining investment success. Gives readers the theories and the empirical tools to handle their own data Features practice problems formerly from the CFA Program curriculum.

Self Awareness Causal Attribution

Becausethe attribution system tries to maximize simplicity within given constraints
, selfattribution may predominate. Several theories appear to appreciate these
problems. Irrational “shoulds” (Beck, 1967), “musts” (Ellis, 1962), and “oughts” ...

Author: Thomas Shelley Duval

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461514893

Category: Psychology

Page: 179

View: 964


Self-awareness - the ability to recognize one's existence - is one of the most important variables in psychology. Without self-awareness, people would be unable to self-reflect, recognize differences between the self and others, or compare themselves with internalized standards. Social, clinical, and personality psychologists have recognized the significance of self-awareness in human functioning, and have conducted much research on how it participates in everyday life and in psychological dysfunctions. Self-Awareness & Causal Attribution: A Dual-Systems Theory presents a new theory of how self-awareness affects thought, feeling, and action. Based on experimental social-psychological research, the authors describe how several interacting cognitive systems determine the links between self-awareness and organized activity. This theory addresses when people become self-focused, how people internalize and change personal standards, when people approach or avoid troubling situations, and the nature of self-evaluation. Special emphasis is given to causal attribution, the process of perceiving causality. Self-Awareness & Causal Attribution will be useful to social, clinical, and personality psychologists, as well as to anyone interested in how the self relates to motivation and emotion.

Person Perception and Attribution

Another problem isthat the correspondent inferencetheory predicts low prior
probability of behaviortobe acuefor dispositional attributions, and this isat
variance with ANOVA model predictions. The logical model (see “Unexpected
contrasts”) ...

Author: Hans-Werner Bierhoff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642741302

Category: Psychology

Page: 313

View: 396


Person perception is of great importance in everyday life and human science. Judgment of other people's characteristics and intentions is important for suc cessfully planning actions within a social environment. Questions about the formation of impressions and causal attributions are central to social psychology and the study of diagnostic judgment formation. The field of per son perception deals with questions of how impression formation proceeds, what characteristics and intentions are attributed to other people, and how preformed schemata and stereotypes influence people's first impressions. Research on person perception developed rapidly after the Second World War. In the 1950s the precision and accuracy of person perception received special interest, but the problems concerning whether an individual's assessment of another personality is exact or not could not be solved. Another approach, which began in the 1940s and was derived from the Gestalt psychological tradi tion, dealt with impression formation based on selected social cues. This ap proach, which proved to be very useful, had considerable influence on both the research methods and the theoretical orientation of the research work. On the one hand, by using a combination of individual cues (like physical characteris tics) researchers tried to ascertain how an impression of a person was formed. On the other hand, the Gestalt psychological orientation led to an interest in the process of person perception, which in the last 10 years has concentrated on questions concerning information reception and processing.

Not for Attribution

A Treasury of Public Relations/Public Affairs Anecdotes Jon. L. Allen. NOT FOR

Author: Jon. L. Allen

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781465321381

Category: Humor

Page: 226

View: 894


The foibles of clients and idiosyncrasies of chief executive officers, told as only their public relations and public affairs staffers can, make for amusing, wry and true stories in Not For Attribution. Annual meetings, annual reports, press conferences, media relations and special events dont always go as planned, sometimes with hilarious results. Not For Attribution is the first ever volume to contain more than two hundred such entertaining anecdotes, contributed by members of their rapidly-growing profession with "real world" experience.

The Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishments

... therefore they are also capable of being directly invoked by nationals of
Member States.4 The issue as to whether EC law, and especially the non-
discrimination principle, affects Member States' domestic and treaty-based rules
on attribution ...

Author: Raffaele Russo

Publisher: IBFD

ISBN: 9789076078847

Category: Business enterprises

Page: 480

View: 208


Social Cognition Inference and Attribution

First , we feel that the whole area of social inference is being studied in
piecemeal fashion , owing to the lack of any generally accepted integrative
framework . The consequences are twofold . Various subrealms of research ( e.g.
, attribution ...

Author: Robert S. Wyer

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0898594995

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 242


First published in 1979. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.