Attribution Theory

In other words, supervisor attributions are a function of the LMX relationships supervisors have with their subordinates. Attributions and categorizations ...

Author: Mark Martinko

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351465144

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 382

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With Special Contributions from Bernard Weiner Ph.D. (UCLA) and Robert Lord Ph.D. (Univ. of Akron) Attribution theory is concerned with peoples causal explanation for outcomes: successes and failures. The basic premise is that beliefs about outcomes are a primary determinant of expectations and, consequently, future behavior. Attribution theory articulates how this process occurs and provides a basis for understanding that translates into practical action. Attribution Theory: An Organizational Perspective serves as a primary sourcebook of attribution theory as it relates to management and organizational behavior. The text provides an integrated explanation of the role and function of attribution theory in the organization. This important new book contains original empirical research relating attributions to leader evaluations, reactions to information technologies, management of diverse work groups, achievement, and executive succession and power. The contributors are from a variety of disciplines including management, psychology, education, educational psychology, and sociology.

Attribution

Research that is concerned with causal attributions can — according to Kelley ... First, attribution theories are concerned with the antecedent conditions ...

Author: Friedrich Försterling

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317774761

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

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Attribution concerns the scientific study of naive theories and common-sense explanations. This text provides a thorough and up-to-date introduction to the field, combining comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theoretical ideas and most significant research with an overview of more recent developments. The author begins with a broad overview of the central questions and basic assumptions of attribution research. This is followed by discussion of the ways in which causal explanations determine reactions to success or failure and how our causal explanations of other people's actions shape our behaviour toward them. The manner in which attributions may shape communication, and how people often quite indirectly communicate their beliefs about causality, is also explained. Finally, the issue of changing causal connections in training and therapy is addressed. With end of chapter summaries, further reading and exercises to illustrate key attribution phenomena, Attribution will be essential reading for students of social psychology and associated areas such as personality, educational, organisational and clinical psychology.

Authorship Attribution

Patrick Juola Authorship Attribution, the science of inferring characteristics of the author from the characteristics of documents written by that author, ...

Author: Patrick Juola

Publisher: Now Publishers Inc

ISBN: 9781601981189

Category: Computers

Page: 104

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Authorship Attribution surveys the history and present state of the discipline, presenting some comparative results where available. It also provides a theoretical and empirically-tested basis for further work. Many modern techniques are described and evaluated, along with some insights for application for novices and experts alike.

Scalability Issues in Authorship Attribution

Especially in multi-topic authorship attribution, careful experimental design is essential to increase scalability. According to Stamatatos (2009), ...

Author: Kim Luyckx

Publisher: ASP / VUBPRESS / UPA

ISBN: 9789054878230

Category: Computers

Page: 196

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This book is about authorship attribution, the task that aims to identify the author of a text, given a model of authorial style based on texts of known authorship. Computational authorship attribution does not rely on in-depth reading, but rather automates the process. This book investigates the behavior of a text categorization approach to the task when confronted with scalability issues. By addressing the issues of experimental design, data size, and author set size, the dissertation demonstrates whether the approach taken is valid in experiments with limited or sufficient data, and with small or large sets of authors. "Scalability issues in authorship attribution" provides the first in-depth and systematic study of the so-called scalability issues in authorship attribution. Above all, the book stresses the importance of methodology: even the smallest of decisions can significantly influence the outcome and reliability of an experiment.

Fixed Income Attribution

Table 12.7 Returns from sector curve attribution analysis Return from a sector curve attribution analysis Yield return Treasury curve return Sector return ...

Author: Andrew Colin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470013588

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 162

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Fixed income attribution is by its very nature a complex and mathematically demanding topic, and there is little information available on this area. Fixed Income Attribution has been written to fill this tremendous void. This comprehensive resource contains both theoretical and practical information about running and understanding fixed income attribution, including the mathematics of attribution, practical limitations, benchmarks, presentation tools, and choosing and running an attribution system. Filled with insightful examples and expert advice, Fixed Income Attribution is the perfect source of information for those working in this complex environment.

Attribution

Selfesteem and causal attributions for success and failure in children. Cognitive Therapy and Research,9, 381–398. Fincham, F.D.(1981).

Author: Gifford Weary

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461236085

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

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This book initially was conceived in 1986 by Weary and Harvey as a revi sion and update of their 1981 Perspectives on Attributional Processes (pub lished by Wm. C. Brown," Dubuque, Iowa). However: toe extensive nature of recent work on attributional processes and the opportunity to collabo rate with Melinda Stanley as a coauthor led to a plan to develop a more comprehensive work than the 1981 book. It definitely is an amalgam of our interests in social and clinical psychology. It represents our commitment to basic theoretical and empirical inquiry blended with the applications of ideas and methods to understanding attribution in more naturalistic set tings, and as it unfolds in the lives of different kinds of people coping with diverse problems of living. The book represents a commitment also to the breadth of approach to attribution questions epitomized by Fritz Heider's uniquely creative mind and work in pioneering the area. To us, the attribu tional approach is not a sacrosanct school of thought on the human condi tion. It is, rather, a body of ideas and findings that we find to be highly useful in our work as social (JH and GW) and clinical (GW and MS) psychology scholars. It is an inviting approach that, as we shall describe in the book, brings together ideas and work from different fields in psychology-all concerned with the pervasive and inestimab1e importance of interpretive activity in human experience and behavior.

Practical Portfolio Performance Measurement and Attribution

I'm not yet sure we have reached the point at which attribution standards would be useful. Development of various attribution methodologies continues to ...

Author: Carl R. Bacon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119995477

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 402

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Performance measurement and attribution are key tools in informing investment decisions and strategies. Performance measurement is the quality control of the investment decision process, enabling money managers to calculate return, understand the behaviour of a portfolio of assets, communicate with clients and determine how performance can be improved. Focusing on the practical use and calculation of performance returns rather than the academic background, Practical Portfolio Performance Measurement and Attribution provides a clear guide to the role and implications of these methods in today's financial environment, enabling readers to apply their knowledge with immediate effect. Fully updated from the first edition, this book covers key new developments such as fixed income attribution, attribution of derivative instruments and alternative investment strategies, leverage and short positions, risk-adjusted performance measures for hedge funds plus updates on presentation standards. The book covers the mathematical aspects of the topic in an accessible and practical way, making this book an essential reference for anyone involved in asset management.

For Attribution

Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards: Summary of an International Workshop National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, ...

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309267311

Category: Computers

Page: 238

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The growth of electronic publishing of literature has created new challenges, such as the need for mechanisms for citing online references in ways that can assure discoverability and retrieval for many years into the future. The growth in online datasets presents related, yet more complex challenges. It depends upon the ability to reliably identify, locate, access, interpret, and verify the version, integrity, and provenance of digital datasets. Data citation standards and good practices can form the basis for increased incentives, recognition, and rewards for scientific data activities that in many cases are currently lacking in many fields of research. The rapidly-expanding universe of online digital data holds the promise of allowing peer-examination and review of conclusions or analysis based on experimental or observational data, the integration of data into new forms of scholarly publishing, and the ability for subsequent users to make new and unforeseen uses and analyses of the same data-either in isolation, or in combination with, other datasets. The problem of citing online data is complicated by the lack of established practices for referring to portions or subsets of data. There are a number of initiatives in different organizations, countries, and disciplines already underway. An important set of technical and policy approaches have already been launched by the U.S. National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and other standards bodies regarding persistent identifiers and online linking. The workshop summarized in For Attribution-Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards: Summary of an International Workshop was organized by a steering committee under the National Research Council's (NRC's) Board on Research Data and Information, in collaboration with an international CODATA-ICSTI Task Group on Data Citation Standards and Practices. The purpose of the symposium was to examine a number of key issues related to data identification, attribution, citation, and linking to help coordinate activities in this area internationally, and to promote common practices and standards in the scientific community.

Attribution Theory

Persistence and the causal perception of failure: Modifying cognitive attributions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 154¥166.

Author: Sandra Graham

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317784210

Category: Psychology

Page: 244

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This unusual volume begins with a historical overview of the growth of attribution theory, setting the stage for the three broad domains of application that are addressed in the remainder of the book. These include applications to: achievement strivings in the classroom and the sports domain; issues of mental health such as analyses of stress and coping and interpretations of psychotherapy; and personal and business conflict such as buyer- seller disagreement, marital discord, dissension in the workplace, and international strife. Because the chapters in Attribution Theory are more research-based than practice- oriented, this book will be of great interest and value to an audience of applied psychologists.

Attribution of Advanced Persistent Threats

Thus, also in the future only those campaigns will be selected for official attribution that cause the greatest damage or pose the greatest risk [7].

Author: Timo Steffens

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783662613139

Category: Computers

Page: 205

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An increasing number of countries develop capabilities for cyber-espionage and sabotage. The sheer number of reported network compromises suggests that some of these countries view cyber-means as integral and well-established elements of their strategical toolbox. At the same time the relevance of such attacks for society and politics is also increasing. Digital means were used to influence the US presidential election in 2016, repeatedly led to power outages in Ukraine, and caused economic losses of hundreds of millions of dollars with a malfunctioning ransomware. In all these cases the question who was behind the attacks is not only relevant from a legal perspective, but also has a political and social dimension. Attribution is the process of tracking and identifying the actors behind these cyber-attacks. Often it is considered an art, not a science. This book systematically analyses how hackers operate, which mistakes they make, and which traces they leave behind. Using examples from real cases the author explains the analytic methods used to ascertain the origin of Advanced Persistent Threats.

Attribution in International Investment Law

involvement in investment relations.139 The traditional role of attribution manifests itself in the law of State responsibility, as developed in customary ...

Author: Csaba Kovács

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789041196828

Category: Law

Page: 368

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The term ‘attribution’ refers to the means by which it is ascertained whether the State is involved in a dispute governed by international law. The notion of attribution is primarily used to determine if the State is responsible for the wrongful conduct of persons or entities with links to the State. In the context of international investment law, the exponentially growing arbitration jurisprudence arising from international investment agreements (IIAs), especially bilateral investment treaties (BITs), reflects the extent and risk of attribution determined in investment relationships that often involve State enterprises. This book, the first in-depth study of the uses of attribution in international investment law, provides a deeply informed analysis of the treatment of attribution in applicable legal instruments and investment arbitration jurisprudence worldwide. The analysis responds to such questions as the following: - When is a conduct attributable to the State for the purposes of its responsibility under international investment law? - What legal instruments govern the question of attribution under international investment law? - In what circumstances is the State the proper party to a contract entered into by a State-owned enterprise with an investor protected by an investment treaty? - How can State policymakers minimise their international law responsibility within the existing framework of attribution in international investment law? - How can investors maximise their protection within the existing framework of attribution in international investment law? Also covered are the procedural treatment of attribution by investment tribunals, explication of such broad-brush wordings as ‘elements of governmental authority’ and ‘under the direction or control’, and the impact of the rise of State-owned enterprises as investors. Ongoing and future trends in the jurisprudence are also taken into account. A one-stop reference on the question of attribution in international investment law, the analysis extracts identifiable commonalities among instruments and rulings, turning them into useful practice tools. This book will prove invaluable for practitioners advising States or investors in investment disputes. More generally, this book will be welcomed by arbitrators, in-house counsel for companies doing transnational business and international arbitration centres, as well as by academics in international arbitration.

Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishments

are to be contemplated; one of these aspects – which will be the focus of the given paper – is the issue of profit attribution. For purposes of this paper, ...

Author: Michael Lang

Publisher: Linde Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 9783709410561

Category: Law

Page: 232

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Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishments: Issues and Developments The profit attribution to permanent establishments is one of the most controversial topics in international tax law. In recent years it was subject to various changes based on the introduction of the “Authorized OECD Approach” in 2008 and 2010, the outcomes of Final Report on OECD BEPS Action 7 and the Final Report on “Additional Guidance on the Attribution of Profits to a Permanent Establishment under BEPS Action 7” from 2018 (with the previous Discussion-Drafts). This publication discusses the most important issues and recent developments related to the attribution of profits to permanent establishments. Starting with an in-depth analysis on the commonalities and differences between the profit attribution provisions in modern double tax treaties (ie Art 7 AOA vs Art 9 OECD/UN Models), it further deals with topics such as profit attribution to PEs and PE exemptions (Art 5 para 4), profit attribution to agency PEs (Art 5 para 5 and 6), and profit attribution to a "significant economic presence" and to market states. This book is based on the outcomes of the presentations and discussions held during the WU Transfer Pricing Symposium that took place in October 2019 at the WU Vienna University of Economics and Business. The authors, apart from providing a theoretical background to the discussed issues, also present case studies that show how certain issues can be approached in practice. Every chapter ends with a summary of the opinions on the issues at stake of representatives of tax administrations, multinationals and tax advisories, which completes this essential practical guideline.

New Directions in Attribution Research

... 13 ANOVA formulation of attribution, 300–331 Attribution and affective intensity, 64–84 Attribution and self-perception, 378–379 Attribution and ...

Author: J. H. Harvey

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781134919451

Category: Psychology

Page: 468

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Published in 1976, New Directions in Attribution Research is a valuable contribution to the field of Social Psychology.

An Introduction to Attribution Processes

See also Biases in attribution; Errors inat tribution Personal similarity, 110 Personalism, 50 Personality asacausal factor, 119, 120, 122 as a collection ...

Author: Kelly G. Shaver

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315536002

Category: Psychology

Page: 164

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Why do people act the way they do? How do their desires and fears become known to us? When are our opinions of others correct, and when are they likely to be mistaken? These are questions which attribution theory tries to answer. Originally published in 1975, this title provides an informal introduction to the field of attribution, with the theoretical principles and issues illustrated in everyday examples. The origins of current attribution theory are outlined, and models of the inference process are examined. The intellectual debt owed to social psychology by the attribution theory is acknowledged, and an exploration of the interpersonal and social consequences of attribution is included.

Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

ATTRIBUTION OF EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE • the model characteristics that are required to reliably reproduce extreme events of ...

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309380973

Category: Science

Page: 186

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As climate has warmed over recent years, a new pattern of more frequent and more intense weather events has unfolded across the globe. Climate models simulate such changes in extreme events, and some of the reasons for the changes are well understood. Warming increases the likelihood of extremely hot days and nights, favors increased atmospheric moisture that may result in more frequent heavy rainfall and snowfall, and leads to evaporation that can exacerbate droughts. Even with evidence of these broad trends, scientists cautioned in the past that individual weather events couldn't be attributed to climate change. Now, with advances in understanding the climate science behind extreme events and the science of extreme event attribution, such blanket statements may not be accurate. The relatively young science of extreme event attribution seeks to tease out the influence of human-cause climate change from other factors, such as natural sources of variability like El Niño, as contributors to individual extreme events. Event attribution can answer questions about how much climate change influenced the probability or intensity of a specific type of weather event. As event attribution capabilities improve, they could help inform choices about assessing and managing risk, and in guiding climate adaptation strategies. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities.

Performance Evaluation and Attribution of Security Portfolios

Chapter 12 ABSTRACT In this chapter the fundamental approach to attribution analysis as developed by Brinson and others will be introduced.

Author: Bernd R. Fischer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080926520

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 724

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Just how successful is that investment? Measuring portfolio performance requires evaluation (measuring portfolio results against benchmarks) and attribution (determining individual results of the portfolio's parts), In this book, a professor and an asset manager show readers how to use theories, applications, and real data to understand these tools. Unlike others, Fischer and Wermers teach readers how to pick the theories and applications that fit their specific needs. With material inspired by the recent financial crisis, Fischer and Wermers bring new clarity to defining investment success. Gives readers the theories and the empirical tools to handle their own data Features practice problems formerly from the CFA Program curriculum.

Self Awareness Causal Attribution

When the motives are irrelevant, attribution will be guided solely by the principles governing the attribution system. We believe this tobethe case whena ...

Author: Thomas Shelley Duval

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461514893

Category: Psychology

Page: 179

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Self-awareness - the ability to recognize one's existence - is one of the most important variables in psychology. Without self-awareness, people would be unable to self-reflect, recognize differences between the self and others, or compare themselves with internalized standards. Social, clinical, and personality psychologists have recognized the significance of self-awareness in human functioning, and have conducted much research on how it participates in everyday life and in psychological dysfunctions. Self-Awareness & Causal Attribution: A Dual-Systems Theory presents a new theory of how self-awareness affects thought, feeling, and action. Based on experimental social-psychological research, the authors describe how several interacting cognitive systems determine the links between self-awareness and organized activity. This theory addresses when people become self-focused, how people internalize and change personal standards, when people approach or avoid troubling situations, and the nature of self-evaluation. Special emphasis is given to causal attribution, the process of perceiving causality. Self-Awareness & Causal Attribution will be useful to social, clinical, and personality psychologists, as well as to anyone interested in how the self relates to motivation and emotion.

Attribution in International Law and Arbitration

This chapter aims to elucidate the resolution of problems of attribution of conduct to the State in the context of international investment arbitration ...

Author: Carlo de Stefano

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192583093

Category: Law

Page: 256

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Attribution in International Law and Arbitration clarifies and critically discusses the international rules of attribution of conduct, particularly regarding their application to states under international investment law. It examines the key question of how and to what extent breaches of State obligations, particularly in respect of States' commitments to foreign investors under international investment agreements (IIAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs), can be attributed. Of special interest within this context is the responsibility of States when the alleged breach has been committed by separate legal entities, rather than the state itself. Under domestic law, entities such as state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are considered legally distinct, however the State may still be considered responsible for their actions under international law. The book addresses the relevant issues systematically, beginning with direct reference to the Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) on attribution, finalized by the International law Commission (ILC) in 2001. It then elaborates on the specifics of international investment law, based on a detailed examination of practice and case law, whilst giving due consideration to the academic debate. The result is a full, innovative take on one of the most difficult questions in investment arbitration.

Person Perception and Attribution

and consistency influence person attributions and object attributions. For example, person attributions were greater with low distinctiveness, ...

Author: Hans-Werner Bierhoff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642741302

Category: Psychology

Page: 313

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Person perception is of great importance in everyday life and human science. Judgment of other people's characteristics and intentions is important for suc cessfully planning actions within a social environment. Questions about the formation of impressions and causal attributions are central to social psychology and the study of diagnostic judgment formation. The field of per son perception deals with questions of how impression formation proceeds, what characteristics and intentions are attributed to other people, and how preformed schemata and stereotypes influence people's first impressions. Research on person perception developed rapidly after the Second World War. In the 1950s the precision and accuracy of person perception received special interest, but the problems concerning whether an individual's assessment of another personality is exact or not could not be solved. Another approach, which began in the 1940s and was derived from the Gestalt psychological tradi tion, dealt with impression formation based on selected social cues. This ap proach, which proved to be very useful, had considerable influence on both the research methods and the theoretical orientation of the research work. On the one hand, by using a combination of individual cues (like physical characteris tics) researchers tried to ascertain how an impression of a person was formed. On the other hand, the Gestalt psychological orientation led to an interest in the process of person perception, which in the last 10 years has concentrated on questions concerning information reception and processing.

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli STEC and food attribution characterization and monitoring

Human foodborne illness source attribution is defined as the partitioning of the human disease burden of one or more foodborne illnesses to specific sources ...

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251306826

Category: Social Science

Page: 74

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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a substantial health issue worldwide. Circa 2010, foodborne STEC caused > 1 million human illnesses, 128 deaths, and ~ 13,000 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Targeting interventions appropriately relies on identifying those strains of greatest risk to human health and determining the types of foods that cause STEC infections. There are hundreds of STEC serotypes; however, based on the evidence gathered during the review, the Expert Group concluded that the serotype of the STEC strain should not be considered a virulence criterion. All STEC strains with the same serotype should not be assumed to carry the same virulence genes and to pose the same risk, as many STEC virulence genes are mobile and can be lost or transferred to other bacteria. this report proposes a set of criteria for categorizing the potential risk of severity of illness associated with a STEC in food is recommended based on evidence of virulence gene profiles and associations with clinical severity. The criteria could be applied by risk managers in a risk-based management approach to control STEC in food. While ruminants and, other land animals are considered the main reservoirs for STEC, various largescale outbreaks have been linked to other foods. Thus, the report also addresses source attribution of foodborne STEC infections globally in order to inform the development of international standards by the Codex Alimentarius on the control of STEC, and in particular identify the foods which should be the focus of those standards. Finally it provides a review of monitoring programmes and methodology for STEC which can serve as a reference for countries planning to develop such programmes.