Attribution Theory

A comparison of the validity, ptedictiveness, and consistency of a trait versus situational measure of attributions, in Attribution Theory; An Organizational Perspective, M.J. Martinko (Ed.), Delray Beach, Fla.: St. Lucie Press.

Author: Mark Martinko

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351465144

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 382

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With Special Contributions from Bernard Weiner Ph.D. (UCLA) and Robert Lord Ph.D. (Univ. of Akron) Attribution theory is concerned with peoples causal explanation for outcomes: successes and failures. The basic premise is that beliefs about outcomes are a primary determinant of expectations and, consequently, future behavior. Attribution theory articulates how this process occurs and provides a basis for understanding that translates into practical action. Attribution Theory: An Organizational Perspective serves as a primary sourcebook of attribution theory as it relates to management and organizational behavior. The text provides an integrated explanation of the role and function of attribution theory in the organization. This important new book contains original empirical research relating attributions to leader evaluations, reactions to information technologies, management of diverse work groups, achievement, and executive succession and power. The contributors are from a variety of disciplines including management, psychology, education, educational psychology, and sociology.

Attribution

Attribution theories are (scientific) theories about naive theories, that is, they are metatheories; attribution theories are not (or only indirectly) concerned with the actual causes of behaviour but they focus on the perceived causes ...

Author: Friedrich Försterling

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317774761

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

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Attribution concerns the scientific study of naive theories and common-sense explanations. This text provides a thorough and up-to-date introduction to the field, combining comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theoretical ideas and most significant research with an overview of more recent developments. The author begins with a broad overview of the central questions and basic assumptions of attribution research. This is followed by discussion of the ways in which causal explanations determine reactions to success or failure and how our causal explanations of other people's actions shape our behaviour toward them. The manner in which attributions may shape communication, and how people often quite indirectly communicate their beliefs about causality, is also explained. Finally, the issue of changing causal connections in training and therapy is addressed. With end of chapter summaries, further reading and exercises to illustrate key attribution phenomena, Attribution will be essential reading for students of social psychology and associated areas such as personality, educational, organisational and clinical psychology.

Attribution

Selfesteem and causal attributions for success and failure in children. Cognitive Therapy and Research,9, 381–398. Fincham, F.D.(1981). Perception andmoral evaluation in young children. British Journalof Social Psychology, 20, 265–270.

Author: Gifford Weary

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461236085

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

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This book initially was conceived in 1986 by Weary and Harvey as a revi sion and update of their 1981 Perspectives on Attributional Processes (pub lished by Wm. C. Brown," Dubuque, Iowa). However: toe extensive nature of recent work on attributional processes and the opportunity to collabo rate with Melinda Stanley as a coauthor led to a plan to develop a more comprehensive work than the 1981 book. It definitely is an amalgam of our interests in social and clinical psychology. It represents our commitment to basic theoretical and empirical inquiry blended with the applications of ideas and methods to understanding attribution in more naturalistic set tings, and as it unfolds in the lives of different kinds of people coping with diverse problems of living. The book represents a commitment also to the breadth of approach to attribution questions epitomized by Fritz Heider's uniquely creative mind and work in pioneering the area. To us, the attribu tional approach is not a sacrosanct school of thought on the human condi tion. It is, rather, a body of ideas and findings that we find to be highly useful in our work as social (JH and GW) and clinical (GW and MS) psychology scholars. It is an inviting approach that, as we shall describe in the book, brings together ideas and work from different fields in psychology-all concerned with the pervasive and inestimab1e importance of interpretive activity in human experience and behavior.

Attribution Theory

conducted over the past 5 years representing an attempt to test more fully the relationships among attribution, affects, and self-perceptions suggested by Weiner«s model. Finally, we identify some future directions that sport ...

Author: Sandra Graham

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781317784210

Category: Psychology

Page: 244

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This unusual volume begins with a historical overview of the growth of attribution theory, setting the stage for the three broad domains of application that are addressed in the remainder of the book. These include applications to: achievement strivings in the classroom and the sports domain; issues of mental health such as analyses of stress and coping and interpretations of psychotherapy; and personal and business conflict such as buyer- seller disagreement, marital discord, dissension in the workplace, and international strife. Because the chapters in Attribution Theory are more research-based than practice- oriented, this book will be of great interest and value to an audience of applied psychologists.

An Introduction to Attribution Processes

Abilityas a component of personal force, 40 attribution, 114, 115 Accuracy in judgment, 21-23 Achievement behavior, 90 Action components, 39-42, 60-63 definition,60 observation, 26, 27, 60-65, 114, 115,125, 126 Actor self-attribution.

Author: Kelly G. Shaver

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315536002

Category: Psychology

Page: 164

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Why do people act the way they do? How do their desires and fears become known to us? When are our opinions of others correct, and when are they likely to be mistaken? These are questions which attribution theory tries to answer. Originally published in 1975, this title provides an informal introduction to the field of attribution, with the theoretical principles and issues illustrated in everyday examples. The origins of current attribution theory are outlined, and models of the inference process are examined. The intellectual debt owed to social psychology by the attribution theory is acknowledged, and an exploration of the interpersonal and social consequences of attribution is included.

New Models New Extensions of Attribution Theory

attribution theory and research. According toHeider, causal explanation or attribution is fundamental tocommon sense because “Attribution intermsof impersonal and personal causes, andwith the latter, in termsofintent, are everyday ...

Author: Seymour L. Zelen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461231264

Category: Psychology

Page: 212

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Attribution theory has applications in traditional as well as new psychological fields of investigation. This book pre- sents new issues and new research in examining attributions from such diverse viewpoints as existential attributions to information processing and decision making to examining fee- lings of success in terms of corporate scripts in the work- place.

New Directions in Attribution Research

Achievement motivation and emotion, 86–88 Actor-observer differences, 100, 379–380, see also Attributional divergence Alienation, 13 ANOVA formulation of attribution, 300–331 Attribution and affective intensity, 64–84 Attribution and ...

Author: J. H. Harvey

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781134919451

Category: Psychology

Page: 325

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Published in 1976, New Directions in Attribution Research is a valuable contribution to the field of Social Psychology.

Performance Evaluation and Attribution of Security Portfolios

Chapter 12 ABSTRACT In this chapter the fundamental approach to attribution analysis as developed by Brinson and others will be introduced. At first, simple ways for decomposing a return on a segment basis will be described.

Author: Bernd R. Fischer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080926520

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 724

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Just how successful is that investment? Measuring portfolio performance requires evaluation (measuring portfolio results against benchmarks) and attribution (determining individual results of the portfolio's parts), In this book, a professor and an asset manager show readers how to use theories, applications, and real data to understand these tools. Unlike others, Fischer and Wermers teach readers how to pick the theories and applications that fit their specific needs. With material inspired by the recent financial crisis, Fischer and Wermers bring new clarity to defining investment success. Gives readers the theories and the empirical tools to handle their own data Features practice problems formerly from the CFA Program curriculum.

Self Awareness Causal Attribution

When the motives are irrelevant, attribution will be guided solely by the principles governing the attribution system. We believe this tobethe case whena standardis the most plausible causefor negative affect. Causal attribution to the ...

Author: Thomas Shelley Duval

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461514893

Category: Psychology

Page: 179

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Self-awareness - the ability to recognize one's existence - is one of the most important variables in psychology. Without self-awareness, people would be unable to self-reflect, recognize differences between the self and others, or compare themselves with internalized standards. Social, clinical, and personality psychologists have recognized the significance of self-awareness in human functioning, and have conducted much research on how it participates in everyday life and in psychological dysfunctions. Self-Awareness & Causal Attribution: A Dual-Systems Theory presents a new theory of how self-awareness affects thought, feeling, and action. Based on experimental social-psychological research, the authors describe how several interacting cognitive systems determine the links between self-awareness and organized activity. This theory addresses when people become self-focused, how people internalize and change personal standards, when people approach or avoid troubling situations, and the nature of self-evaluation. Special emphasis is given to causal attribution, the process of perceiving causality. Self-Awareness & Causal Attribution will be useful to social, clinical, and personality psychologists, as well as to anyone interested in how the self relates to motivation and emotion.

Person Perception and Attribution

and consistency influence person attributions and object attributions. For example, person attributions were greater with low distinctiveness, low targetobject consensus, andhigh consistency.Inaddition, high comparisonobject consensus ...

Author: Hans-Werner Bierhoff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642741302

Category: Psychology

Page: 313

View: 724

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Person perception is of great importance in everyday life and human science. Judgment of other people's characteristics and intentions is important for suc cessfully planning actions within a social environment. Questions about the formation of impressions and causal attributions are central to social psychology and the study of diagnostic judgment formation. The field of per son perception deals with questions of how impression formation proceeds, what characteristics and intentions are attributed to other people, and how preformed schemata and stereotypes influence people's first impressions. Research on person perception developed rapidly after the Second World War. In the 1950s the precision and accuracy of person perception received special interest, but the problems concerning whether an individual's assessment of another personality is exact or not could not be solved. Another approach, which began in the 1940s and was derived from the Gestalt psychological tradi tion, dealt with impression formation based on selected social cues. This ap proach, which proved to be very useful, had considerable influence on both the research methods and the theoretical orientation of the research work. On the one hand, by using a combination of individual cues (like physical characteris tics) researchers tried to ascertain how an impression of a person was formed. On the other hand, the Gestalt psychological orientation led to an interest in the process of person perception, which in the last 10 years has concentrated on questions concerning information reception and processing.