Nomic Truth Approximation Revisited

Besides this, the book presents, in adapted form, the relation with several other topics, such as, domain revision, aesthetic progress, abduction, inference to the best explanation, pragmatic aspects, probabilistic methods, belief revision ...

Author: Theo A. F. Kuipers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319983882

Category: Science

Page: 346

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This monograph presents new ideas in nomic truth approximation. It features original and revised papers from a (formal) philosopher of science who has studied the concept for more than 35 years. Over the course of time, the author's initial ideas evolved. He discovered a way to generalize his first theory of nomic truth approximation, viz. by dropping an unnecessarily strong assumption. In particular, he first believed to have to assume that theories were maximally specific in the sense that they did not only exclude certain conceptual possibilities, but also that all non-excluded possibilities were in fact claimed to be nomically possible. Now, he argues that the exclusion claim alone, or for that matter the inclusion claim alone, is sufficient to motivate the formal definition of being closer to the nomic truth. The papers collected here detail this generalized view of nomic truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Besides this, the book presents, in adapted form, the relation with several other topics, such as, domain revision, aesthetic progress, abduction, inference to the best explanation, pragmatic aspects, probabilistic methods, belief revision and epistemological positions, notably constructive realism. Overall, the volume presents profound insight into nomic truth approximation. This idea seeks to determine how one theory can be closer to, or more similar to, the truth about what is nomically, e.g. physically, chemically, biologically, possible than another theory. As a result, it represents the ultimate goal of theory oriented empirical science. Theo Kuipers is the author of Studies in Inductive Probability and Rational Expectation (1978), From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) and Structures in Science (2001). He is the volume-editor of the Handbook on General Philosophy of Science (2007). In 2005 there appeared two volumes of Essays in Debate with Theo Kuipers, entitled Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation and Cognitive Structures in Scientific Inquiry.

Lying by Approximation

In this book, we discuss common pitfalls encountered by many finite element analysts, in particular, students encountering the method for the first time.

Author: Vincent C. Prantil

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781627052368

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 112

View: 165

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In teaching an introduction to the finite element method at the undergraduate level, a prudent mix of theory and applications is often sought. In many cases, analysts use the finite element method to perform parametric studies on potential designs to size parts, weed out less desirable design scenarios, and predict system behavior under load. In this book, we discuss common pitfalls encountered by many finite element analysts, in particular, students encountering the method for the first time. We present a variety of simple problems in axial, bending, torsion, and shear loading that combine the students' knowledge of theoretical mechanics, numerical methods, and approximations particular to the finite element method itself. We also present case studies in which analyses are coupled with experiments to emphasize validation, illustrate where interpretations of numerical results can be misleading, and what can be done to allay such tendencies. Challenges in presenting the necessary mix of theory and applications in a typical undergraduate course are discussed. We also discuss a list of tips and rules of thumb for applying the method in practice. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Guilty Until Proven Innocent / Let's Get Started / Where We Begin to Go Wrong / It's Only a Model / Wisdom Is Doing It / Summary / Afterword / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

Confirmation Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation

Part III Basic Truth Approximation Introduction to Part III Chapter 7 Truthlikeness and Truth Approximation 7.1. Actual truthlikeness 7.2. Nomic truthlikeness 7.3. Actual and nomic truth approximation 7.4. Survey of bifurcations 7.5.

Author:

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789401201285

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 754

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This book is the first of two volumes devoted to the work of Theo Kuipers, a leading Dutch philosopher of science. Philosophers and scientists from all over the world, thirty seven in all, comment on Kuipers' philosophy, and each of their commentaries is followed by a reply from Kuipers. The present volume focuses on Kuipers' views on confirmation, empirical progress, and truth approximation, as laid down in his From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (Kluwer, 2000). In this book, Kuipers offered a synthesis of Carnap's and Hempel's confirmation theory on the one hand, and Popper's theory of truth approximation on the other. The key element of this synthesis is a sophisticated methodology, which enables the evaluation of theories in terms of their problems and successes (even if the theories are already falsified), and which also fits well with the claim that one theory is closer to the truth than another. Ilkka Niiniluoto, Patrick Maher, John Welch, Gerhard Schurz, Igor Douven, Bert Hamminga, David Miller, Johan van Benthem, Sjoerd Zwart, Thomas Mormann, Jesús Zamora Bonilla, Isabella Burger & Johannes Heidema, Joke Meheus, Hans Mooij, and Diderik Batens comment on these ideas of Kuipers, and many present their own account. The present book also contains a synopsis of From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism. It can be read independently of the second volume of Essays in Debate with Theo Kuipers, which is devoted to Kuipers' Structures in Science (2001).

Approximations to Truth Naturae Novum Organon Classic Reprint

About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work.

Author:

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 0267631294

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 924

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Excerpt from Approximations to Truth, Naturae Novum Organon WE venture to commit to the Press these pre liminary Chapters of' a New Organon of Nature. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Hand books of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy

These conclusions may , in fact , be regarded as a first approximation to truth . 393. Physical science consists of a series of approximations to truth . - The various effects which have been previously neglected are afterwards taken ...

Author: Dionysius Lardner

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105046471525

Category: Astronomy

Page:

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Hand books of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy Mechanics Hydrostatics hydraulics pneumatics and sound Optics v 2 Heat Magnetism common electricity and voltaic electricity v 3 Meteorology Astronomy

These conclusions may , in fact , be regarded as a first approximation to truth . 393. Physical science consists of a series of approrimations to truth . — The various effects which have been previously neglected are afterwards taken ...

Author: Dionysius Lardner

Publisher:

ISBN: NYPL:33433069100000

Category: Astronomy

Page:

View: 581

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Everything that Linguists Have Always Wanted to Know about Logic But Were Ashamed to Ask

The proposition involving the best approximation relative to the given standards should receive the truth value 1 , and those involving other approximations should receive other truth values , perhaps even 0 in all cases .

Author: James D. McCawley

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226556107

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 633

View: 593

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McCawley supplements his earlier book—which covers such topics as presuppositional logic, the logic of mass terms and nonstandard quantifiers, and fuzzy logic—with new material on the logic of conditional sentences, linguistic applications of type theory, Anil Gupta's work on principles of identity, and the generalized quantifier approach to the logical properties of determiners.

Mechanics

These conclusions may , in fact , be regarded as a first approximation to truth . The various effects which have been previously neglected are afterwards taken into account . The roughness of surfaces , the imperfect rigidity of the ...

Author: Dionysius Lardner

Publisher:

ISBN: OXFORD:590582920

Category:

Page:

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Likeness to Truth

(Hence some truths are better than other truths as approximations to the whole truth.) As for falsehoods, examples have already been given in which one false theory is closer to the truth than another. There even seem to be cases in ...

Author: G. Oddie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400946583

Category: Philosophy

Page: 236

View: 102

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The concept of likeness to truth, like that of truth itself, is fundamental to a realist conception of inquiry. To demonstrate this we need only make two rather modest aim of an inquiry, as an inquiry, is realist assumptions: the truth doctrine (that the the truth of some matter) and the progress doctrine (that one false theory may realise this aim better than another). Together these yield the conclusion that a false theory may be more truthlike, or closer to the truth, than another. It is the aim of this book to give a rigorous philosophical analysis of the concept of likeness to truth, and to examine the consequences, some of them no doubt surprising to those who have been unduly impressed by the (admittedly important) true/false dichotomy. Truthlikeness is not only a requirement of a particular philosophical outlook, it is as deeply embedded in common sense as the concept of truth. Everyone seems to be capable of grading various propositions, in different (hypothetical) situations, according to their closeness to the truth in those situations. And (if my experience is anything to go by) there is remarkable unanimity on these pretheoretical judge ments. This is not proof that there is a single coherent concept underlying these judgements. The whole point of engaging in philosophical analysis is to make this claim plausible.

Einstein Popper and the Crisis of theoretical Physics

“It would of course be very complicated actually to carry out the calculations specified although it would certainly not be without interest to examine in a simple case the degree of approximation to truth that can thus be achieved.

Author: Christoph von Mettenheim

Publisher: tredition

ISBN: 9783732378999

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 573

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EINSTEIN, POPPER AND THE THEORY OF LIGHT AND MATTER discusses under philosophical, logical and mathematical aspects the theory of light and the problem of explaining gravitation, one of the oldest problems of philosophy and physics. Assuming the cause of gravity to lie in a force of attraction without a material agent would violate fundamental principles of physics. Newton saw that, and he knew that his theory left gravity well described but unexplained. Michael Faraday also saw the problem but could not solve it. Both relied on the ether hypothesis, which was given up at the beginning of the 20th Century in favour of Quantum Theory and the Theory of Relativity. Quantum Theory and the Theory of Relativity, however, rested on serious logical and mathematical mistakes. Max Planck gave no reasons for the individibility of the quantum, and his quantum jump assumed velocity without taking time. Einstein based his theory on a mathematical self-contradiction that remained undiscovered in a whole century. Both theories must be abandoned. In that difficult situation applying Karl Popper ́s theory of science leads to a revival of the ether hypothesis in a different shape. If matter is not distinct from ether but is itself a process composed of ether particles, then their elasticity will explain the phenomena of light, of gravity, of the stability of matter, of the vortex shape of galaxies, and several other phenomena as well.

System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive

It is a truth known to us by early and constant experience — an inductive truth ; and such truths are the foundation ... legitimately follow from the hypothesis of the truth of premises which are avowedly mere approximations to truth.

Author: John Stuart Stuart Mill

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 9781605203751

Category: Philosophy

Page: 642

View: 288

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One of the foremost figures of Western intellectual thought in the late 19th century, John Stuart Mill offered up examinations of human rights, personal and societal rights and responsibilities, and the striving for individual happiness that continue to impact our philosophies, both private and political, to this day. In this, his definitive work, Mill lays the groundwork for his philosophy: his theory of names and naming, his general characterization of reasoning and inference, his ideas on "necessary truths," his thinking on the laws of nature, his deductive method, and much more.First published in 1843, this is a replica of the 1886 "People's Edition," and is essential reading for students of Mill in particular and of 19th-century philosophy in general.English philosopher and politician JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873) served as an administrator in the East Indian Company from 1823 to 1858, and as a member of parliament from 1865 to 1868. Among his essays on a wide range of political and social thought are Principles of Political Economy (1848), Considerations on Representative Government (1861), and The Subjection of Women (1869).

Popular Lectures on Science and Art

Like the first outline of a picture , they resemble , in their general features , that truth to which , after many subsequent corrections , they must finally approximate . After a first approximation has been made on the several false ...

Author: Dionysius Lardner

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:HN5ZRL

Category: Science

Page:

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The Intellectual Powers

They are not approximations to truth, as are many scientific theories. Indeed, they are not approximations, since an approximation to sense is some form or other of nonsense. They are not idealizations, as many scientific theories are, ...

Author:

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9781444332476

Category: Philosophy

Page: 490

View: 995

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The Intellectual Powers is a philosophical investigationinto the cognitive and cogitative powers of mankind. It develops aconnective analysis of our powers of consciousness, intentionality,mastery of language, knowledge, belief, certainty, sensation,perception, memory, thought, and imagination, by one ofBritain’s leading philosophers. It is an essential guide andhandbook for philosophers, psychologists, and cognitiveneuroscientists. The culmination of 45 years of reflection on the philosophy ofmind, epistemology, and the nature of the human person No other book in epistemology or philosophy of psychologyprovides such extensive overviews of consciousness,self-consciousness, intentionality, mastery of a language,knowledge, belief, memory, sensation and perception, thought andimagination Illustrated with tables, tree-diagrams, and charts to provideoverviews of the conceptual relationships disclosed byanalysis Written by one of Britain’s best philosophical minds A sequel to Hacker’s Human Nature: The CategorialFramework An essential guide and handbook for all who are working inphilosophy of mind, epistemology, psychology, cognitive science,and cognitive neuroscience