Animal Bodies Human Minds Ape Dolphin and Parrot Language Skills

Ape, Dolphin, and Parrot Language Skills W.A. Hillix, Duane Rumbaugh. “
romantic ” attitude toward her “ baby ” that Mrs. Hoyt had for Toto . Speaking of
chimpanzees , Kohts says : ... the experiments conducted by Professor Yerkes
have ...

Author: William Hillix

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306477394

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 310

View: 507


Several books chronicle attempts, most of them during the last 40 years, to teach animals to communicate with people in a human-designed language. These books have typically treated only one or two species, or even one or a few research projects. We have provided a more encompassing view of this field. We also want to reinforce what other authors, for example Jane Goodall, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Penny Patterson, Birute Galdikas, and Roger and Deborah Fouts, so passionately convey about our responsibility for our closest animal kin. This book surveys what was known, or believed about animal language throughout history and prehistory, and summarizes current knowledge and the controversy around it. The authors identify and attempt to settle most of the problems in interpreting the animal behaviours that have been observed in studies of animal language ability.

The Scented Ape

The psychological ( that is , psychosexual ) significance of hair in this peculiar
animal has become greater than its biological usefulness . With hair rendered
obsolete , the sebaceous gland 49 The scented ape Chapter 3: The scented ape.

Author: David Michael Stoddart

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521395615

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 590


Both men and women devote time and effort to removing natural body odour and replacing it with sexual attractant odours derived from plants and animals - we seem to need to smell of something other than people! Yet of all the apes, we are the most richly endowed with scent producing glands. This book examines the sense of smell in humans, comparing it with the known functions of the same sense in other animals. Odorous cues play a role in sexual physiology and behaviour in animals and there are claims that odour can play the same role in humans. The place of odours and scents in aesthetics and in psychoanalysis serves to illustrate the link between the emotional centres and the brain. The book presents arguments to explain the way in which our ancestral past has given rise to our modern day olfactory enigmas. The material is presented with as much explanation of the technical detail as possible to make the book accessible to a wide readership.

The Neglected Ape

The concept of nature has occupied philosophers, politicians and law makers
throughout recorded history, clearly much longer than concepts about the apes.
Empedocles, well before Aristotle, used the concept of the "survival of the fittest",
but ...

Author: Biruté M.F. Galdikas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306452138

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 185


The orangutan is the most highly endangered species of great ape. Orangutans are threatened by deforestation, poaching, the illegal pet trade, and the isolation and fragmen tation of dwindling wild populations. Their conservation is impeded by certain aspects of their ecology (e. g. , a rain forest habitat) and certain features of their life history (e. g. , an eight-to twelve-year interbirth interval). Added to the U. S. Endangered Species List in 1970, the orangutan is now clearly on the road to extinction. The number of wild orangutans in Borneo and Sumatra is currently estimated to have decreased to between 12,300 and 20,571 individuals. Only 2% of original orangutan habitat is protected and some of these areas are now being destroyed. Clearly, attention to ecology, demography, censusing, rehabilitation, and conservation is essential if the orangutan is to survive in the wild beyond the next century. The protection of orangutans is a complex, multifaceted problem, involving such pressing issues as human poverty, overpopulation, and the economic development of Southeast Asia. Although the orangutan has been placed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), more orangutans were sold illegally in Taiwan between 1990 and 1993 than are housed in all the world's zoos. In the past, scientific and public attention has centered on the African apes. For this reason, the sole Asian great ape, the orangutan, has been called the "neglected ape.

The Ape in the Tree

It is to cladistics we have to turn to try to answer the questions : What is an ape ?
What is a monkey ? Was there ever a creature closely related to both apes and
monkeys that was neither one ? All apes and monkeys from the Old World ( Africa

Author: Alan Walker

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674016750

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 288

View: 163


Detailing the unfolding discovery of a crucial link in our evolution, this book is written in the voice of Walker, whose involvement with Proconsul began when his graduate supervisor analyzed the tree-climbing adaptations in the arm and hand of this extinct creature. Today, Proconsul is the best-known fossil ape in the world.

Watch Me Grow Ape

Glossary Nest A place some apes make for sleeping, made out of leaves.
Grooming When apes use their hands to clean and tidy each other's fur.
Rainforest A place with many big trees where it rains a lot. Fur The soft hair that
keeps the ape ...

Author: DK Publishing

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9780756644123

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

View: 257


Explaining each stage of development on the road to adulthood, these adorable books give beginning readers an animal''s-eye view of growing up Packed with colorful information, photographs, and first person text Fantastic animal facts accompany each stage of growth Narrative style makes subjects accessible to young readers

The Late Great Ape Debate

Author: Bayard Taylor

Publisher: Standard Publishing

ISBN: 0784721726

Category: Religion

Page: 207

View: 628


Theres more than one way to address the creation vs. evolution debate. The Late Great Ape Debate takes a postmodern approach to show how the Bible and science can work together, not oppose one another.

The Ape in the Corner Office

Author: Richard Conniff

Publisher: Currency

ISBN: 9780307336484

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 260


Tired of swimming with the sharks? Fed up with that big ape down the hall? Real animals can teach us better ways to thrive in the workplace jungle. You’re ambitious and want to get ahead, but what’s the best way to do it? Become the biggest, baddest predator? The proverbial 800-pound gorilla? Or does nature teach you to be more subtle and sophisticated? Richard Conniff, the acclaimed author of The Natural History of the Rich, has survived savage beasts in the workplace jungle, where he hooted and preened in the corner office as a publishing executive. He’s also spent time studying how animals operate in the real jungles of the Amazon and the African bush. What he shows in The Ape in the Corner Office is that nature built you to be nice. Doing favors, grooming coworkers with kind words, building coalitions—these tools for getting ahead come straight from the jungle. The stereotypical Darwinian hard-charger supposedly thinks only about accumulating resources. But highly effective apes know it’s often smarter to give them away. That doesn’t mean it’s a peaceable kingdom out there, however. Conniff shows that you can become more effective by understanding how other species negotiate the tricky balance between conflict and cooperation. Conniff quotes one biologist on a chimpanzee’s obsession with rank: “His attempts to maintain and achieve alpha status are cunning, persistent, energetic, and time-consuming. They affect whom he travels with, whom he grooms, where he glances, how often he scratches, where he goes, what times he gets up in the morning.” Sound familiar? It’s the same behavior you can find written up in any issue of BusinessWeek or The Wall Street Journal. The Ape in the Corner Office connects with the day-to-day of the workplace because it helps explain what people are really concerned about: How come he got the wing chair with the gold trim? How can I survive as that big ape’s subordinate without becoming a spineless yes-man? Why does being a lone wolf mean being a loser? And, yes, why is it that jerks seem to prosper—at least in the short run? Also available as a Random House AudioBook and an eBook

Best Practice Guidelines for the Surveys and Monitoring of Great Ape Populations

The combination of threats currently facing the remaining great apes requires
immediate conservation action at all scales ... Baseline density estimates and
subsequent monitoring of ape populations are essential for assessing the
impacts of ...


Publisher: IUCN

ISBN: 9782831710624

Category: Apes

Page: 28

View: 394


From the website: The IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group is publishing new guidelines for surveys and monitoring of great ape populations. These guidelines address a need which has existed since great ape studies began -- the challenge of collecting consistently high-quality data for comparison between a wide variety of sites, and often across many years. This need is driven less by academic interest than by the urgent demands of field-based conservation. The maelstrom of threats which now endanger all the great apes must be addressed by immediate action on every scale: initiatives at individual sites, strategies on the regional and national level, and species-wide action plans and international accords. All of these efforts must be founded on accurate field data -- and to fully understand the impact of specific threats, and to measure if conservation programs are succeeding, it is essential to have baseline density estimates and sustained monitoring of great ape populations. The newest publication in the Best Practice series outlines current approaches to these issues, offering guidance and perspective on choices that must be made by wildlife biologists, site managers, government agencies and the conservation community at large. This report provides an overview of the variety of survey methodologies that have been developed, as well as a decision tree to help select the approach that is best for a particular site or situation, depending on available resources. As a continuation of this report, a series of modules will be made available online, which will present detailed information on survey design, field techniques, analytical approaches, and practical issues such as logistics, finance and standardized reporting. These new IUCN guidelines will help researchers to standardize their data collection and, just as importantly, will allow for improved comparisons between datasets. This will complement the A.P.E.S. database (, which is intended to serve as a repository for survey data on great apes, and to analyze trends in their populations. These survey and monitoring guidelines, combined with resources available via A.P.E.S., are important steps towards a comprehensive understanding of the conservation status of great apes, at both the population and species level. .


Art and literature are haunted by apes standing in for humans and providing
moral lessons. Their resemblance to humans has allowed representations as
ugly cousins, miniatures, inferiors, impostors or indicators of our primal selves,
often ...

Author: John Sorenson

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 9781861897466

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 437


Apes—to look at them is to see a mirror of ourselves. Our close genetic relatives fascinate and unnerve us with their similar behavior and social personality. Here, John Sorenson delves into our conflicted relationship to the great apes, which often reveals as much about us as humans as it does about the apes themselves. From bonobos and chimpanzees to gibbons, gorillas, and orangutans, Ape examines the many ways these remarkable animals often serve as models for humans. Anthropologists use their behavior to help explain our fundamental human nature; scientists utilize them as subjects in biomedical research; and behavioral researchers experiment with ways apes emulate us. Sorenson explores the challenges to the complex division between apes and ourselves, describing language experiments, efforts to cross-foster apes by raising them as human children, and the ethical challenges posed by the Great Ape Project. As well, Ape investigates representations of apes in popular culture, particularly films and advertising in which apes are often portrayed as human caricatures, monsters, and clowns. Containing nearly one hundred illustrations of apes in nature and culture, Ape will appeal to readers interested in animal-human relationships and anyone curious to know more about our closest animal cousins, many of whom teeter on the brink of extinction.

Best Practice Guidelines for Great Ape Tourism

Tourism is often proposed 1) as a strategy to fund conservation efforts to protect
great apes1 and their habitats, 2) as a way for local communities to participate in,
and benefit from, conservation activities on behalf of great apes, or 3) as a ...

Author: Elizabeth J. Macfie

Publisher: IUCN

ISBN: 9782831711560

Category: Nature

Page: 77

View: 381


Executive summary: Tourism is often proposed 1) as a strategy to fund conservation efforts to protect great apes and their habitats, 2) as a way for local communities to participate in, and benefit from, conservation activities on behalf of great apes, or 3) as a business. A few very successful sites point to the considerable potential of conservation-based great ape tourism, but it will not be possible to replicate this success everywhere. The number of significant risks to great apes that can arise from tourism reqire a cautious approach. If great ape tourism is not based on sound conservation principles right from the start, the odds are that economic objectives will take precedence, the consequences of which in all likelihood would be damaging to the well-being and eventual survival of the apes, and detrimental to the continued preservation of their habitat. All great ape species and subspecies are classified as Endangered or Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2010), therefore it is imperative that great ape tourism adhere to the best practice guidelines in this document. The guiding principles of best practice in great ape tourism are: Tourism is not a panacea for great ape conservation or revenue generation; Tourism can enhance long-term support for the conservation of great apes and their habitat; Conservation comes first--it must be the primary goal at any great ape site and tourism can be a tool to help fund it; Great ape tourism should only be developed if the anticipated conservation benefits, as identified in impact studies, significantly outweigh the risks; Enhanced conservation investment and action at great ape tourism sites must be sustained in perpetuity; Great ape tourism management must be based on sound and objective science; Benefits and profit for communities adjacent to great ape habitat should be maximised; Profit to private sector partners and others who earn income associated with tourism is also important, but should not be the driving force for great ape tourism development or expansion; Comprehensive understanding of potential impacts must guide tourism development. positive impacts from tourism must be maximised and negative impacts must be avoided or, if inevitable, better understood and mitigated. The ultimate success or failure of great ape tourism can lie in variables that may not be obvious to policymakers who base their decisions primarily on earning revenue for struggling conservation programmes. However, a number of biological, geographical, economic and global factors can affect a site so as to render ape tourism ill-advised or unsustainable. This can be due, for example, to the failure of the tourism market for a particular site to provide revenue sufficient to cover the development and operating costs, or it can result from failure to protect the target great apes from the large number of significant negative aspects inherent in tourism. Either of these failures will have serious consequences for the great ape population. Once apes are habituated to human observers, they are at increased risk from poaching and other forms of conflict with humans. They must be protected in perpetuity even if tourism fails or ceases for any reason. Great ape tourism should not be developed without conducting critical feasibility analyses to ensure there is sufficient potential for success. Strict attention must be paid to the design of the enterprise, its implementation and continual management capacity in a manner that avoids, or at least minimises, the negative impacts of tourism on local communities and on the apes themselves. Monitoring programmes to track costs and impacts, as well as benefits, [is] essential to inform management on how to optimise tourism for conservation benefits. These guidelines have been developed for both existing and potential great ape tourism sites that wish to improve the degree to which their programme constributes to the conservation rather than the exploitation of great apes.

Ape Primitive Man and Child Essays in the History of Behavior

While playing with the clay , and without any external stimulus , some apes
gradually " discovered " drawing . Later on , when given clay once again , the
apes immediately began to play with it in the same way . " To begin with , we saw
the ...

Author: A R Luria

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1878205439

Category: Social Science

Page: 186

View: 419


Available in this first-ever English translation, this study by the well-known Russian psychologists demonstrates that the behavior of modern man is a product of three different lines of development: evolutionary, historical, and ontogenetic. This edition contains reproductions of the artwork from their original manuscript, including rare photographs.

Owen s Ape Darwin s Bulldog

In comparing apes and humans he also dealt with the question of whether blacks
and whites had si milar brains, as he addressed the claims of some people that
blacks were a variety of humans that had a significant affinity with apes.

Author: Christopher Ernest Cosans

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253220516

Category: Science

Page: 166

View: 481


With the debate between Richard Owen and Thomas Huxley on the differences between the ape and human brains as its focus, this book explores some of the ways in which philosophical ideas and scientific practice influenced the discussion of evolution in the years before and after Darwin's publication of Origin of Species in 1859. It also shows how this episode can shed light on current philosophical notions of scientific practice and how they in turn influence our understanding of the history of science. The book advances the current historical discussion of the Owen–Huxley debate by making clear that Owen's anatomical claims had much more support than most historians and philosophers of science assume. One vital way Owen and Huxley differed in their approach to anatomy was how they handled absolute brain size. Owen argued that because the average human brain size was more than double the size of the record ape brain, absolute brain size distinguished humans from apes. Huxley by contrast, argued that because you can find a hippocampus minor in both ape and human brains, there was no great difference. In his 1863 book, Huxley had the artist make a human and chimpanzee brain the same length so that they appear similar size. But if the brain of a full grown chimpanzee is compared at the same scale with a fully grown human brain, the absolute brain size of human is as large as Owen insisted in the debate. Owen's Ape and Darwin's Bulldog also seeks to explore differences in how Owen and Huxley approached racial issues in their debate as a case study on the interplay between values and laboratory science. Beginning in his 1835 paper and throughout the debate Owen maintained that all racial groups have similar brain sizes and intellectual abilities. By contrast, Huxley argued that African brains were intermediate between Europeans and apes: "if we place A, the European brain, B, the Bosjesman brain, and C, the orang brain, in a series, the differences between A and B, so far as they have been ascertained, are of the same nature as the chief of those between B and C."

An Ape Ethic and the Question of Personhood

The fruit and foliage environment of apes, too, is always in a state of change.
Apes “know” all of this and somehow subconsciously calibrate their actions with
the trees sustainably. If the trees thrive, they do so as well. In such a highly
charged ...

Author: Gregory F Tague


ISBN: 9781793619716


Page: 250

View: 463


Gregory F. Tague's An Ape Ethic and the Question of Personhood argues that great apes are moral individuals because they engage in a land ethic as ecosystem engineers to generate ecologically sustainable biomes for themselves and other species. Tague shows that we need to recognize apes as eco-engineers in order to save them and their habitats, and that in so doing, we will ultimately save earth's biosphere. The book draws on extensive empirical research from the ecology and behavior of great apes and synthesizes past and current understanding of the similarities in cognition, social behavior, and culture found in apes. Importantly, this book proposes that differences between humans and apes provide the foundation for the call to recognize forest personhood in the great apes. While all ape species are alike in terms of cognition, intelligence, and behaviors, there is a vital contrast: unlike humans, great apes are efficient ecological engineers. Therefore, simian forest sovereignty is critical to conservation efforts in controlling global warming, and apes should be granted dominion over their tropical forests. Weaving together philosophy, biology, socioecology, and elements from eco-psychology, this book provides a glimmer of hope for future acknowledgment of the inherent ethic that ape species embody in their eco-centered existence on this planet.

The Ape And The Sushi Master

Painting is not a violent activity for chimpanzees.117 If the ape's owner had not
put an end to the pursuit of Rainer, the painter might have learned that an ape,
even a young and relatively small one, has the muscular strength of several
grown ...

Author: Frans De Waal

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780786724536

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 660


From the New York Times bestselling author of Mama's Last Hug and Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?, a provocative argument that apes have created their own distinctive cultures In The Ape and the Sushi Master, eminent primatologist Frans de Waal corrects our arrogant assumption that humans are the only creatures to have made the leap from the natural to the cultural domain. The book's title derives from an analogy de Waal draws between the way behavior is transmitted in ape society and the way sushi-making skills are passed down from sushi master to apprentice. Like the apprentice, young apes watch their group mates at close range, absorbing the methods and lessons of each of their elders' actions. Responses long thought to be instinctive are actually learned behavior, de Waal argues, and constitute ape culture. A delightful mix of intriguing anecdote, rigorous clinical study, adventurous field work, and fascinating speculation, The Ape and the Sushi Master shows that apes are not human caricatures but members of our extended family with their own resourcefulness and dignity.

Extractive Industries and Ape Conservation

How apes are treated and portrayed can influence public perceptions (
Schroepfer et al., 2011), and thus markets driven by human choices. The status of
captive apes is not only a policy or conservation issue; the captive apes
themselves are ...

Author: Arcus Foundation

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107067493

Category: Nature

Page: 377

View: 702


Rigorously and objectively examines the evolving context within which great ape and gibbon habitats are increasingly interfacing with extractive industries.

Eug ne Dubois and the Ape Man from Java

We can gather from his first comments on the fossils directly after the discovery,
and also from his treatise, that the ape-like character of the skullcap (ape-like in
Dubois' eyes, at all events) convinced him that he was not dealing with human ...

Author: L.T. Theunissen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400922099

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 679


Although the name Pithecanthropus is now seldom used, there are few who study the origin of our species who will fail to recognise the historical place of the usage and its association with Eugene Dubois. During the last thirty or forty years, Australopithecus and its African context has tended to draw attention from the early work on our origins in Java. It is now increasingly common to hear the term 'pithecanthropine' used only to indicate the Asian or Far Eastern examples of Homo erectus which, although probably derived from African ancestry, have some features that in the opinion of some experts may justify their being considered distinctive. This discussion is not within the pages that follow which deal extensively with the work of Eugene Dubois. He was an extraordinary man who did as much as any person since to put the great antiquity of our ancestors firmly in the public domain. Dubois became involved with the study of human origins from a medical and anatomical background as have many since. The jealousies and professional pressures that we think of as a phenomenon of the post-war years were clearly a major factor in deciding the future of his career.

The Naked Ape

INTRODUCTION There are one hundred and ninety-three living species of
monkeys and apes. One hundred and ninety-two of them are covered with hair.
The exception is a naked ape self-named Homo sapiens. This unusual and
highly ...

Author: Desmond Morris

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 9781407072395

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 523


FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY EDITION - WITH A NEW PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR Here is the Naked Ape at his most primal - in love, at work, at war. Meet man as he really is: relative to the apes, stripped of his veneer as we see him courting, making love, sleeping, socialising, grooming, playing. Zoologist Desmond Morris's classic takes its place alongside Darwin's Origin of the Species, presenting man not as a fallen angel, but as a risen ape, remarkable in his resilience, energy and imagination, yet an animal nonetheless, in danger of forgetting his origins. With its penetrating insights on man's beginnings, sex life, habits and our astonishing bonds to the animal kingdom, The Naked Ape is a landmark, at once provocative, compelling and timeless. 'Original, provocative and brilliantly entertaining. It's the sort of book that changes people's lives' Sunday Times

The Woman and the Ape

The ape was eating. It ate absorbedly, egoistically, as Madelene herself had
always dreamed of eating, with every sense other than those of taste and smell
suspended, stripped of all mannerliness and with that same lack of fear that had,
from ...

Author: Peter Høeg

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 9781466850804

Category: Fiction

Page: 272

View: 700


The Woman and the Ape is the story of a unique and unforgettable couple—Madelene and Erasmus. Madelene—a sleeping beauty drowsing gently in an alcoholic stupor—is the beautiful and disillusioned wife of Adam Burden, a distinguished behavior scientist. Erasmus—the unlikely prince—is a 300-pound ape. Erasmus is brought to the Burdens' London home after escaping from animal smugglers. In him Adam Burden believes he has discovered a hitherto unknown mammal, a highly intelligent anthropoid ape, the closest thing yet to a human being. If he is right, Erasmus will become the jewel of Burden's new zoo. But Madelene decides to save Erasmus, investing in her efforts all the single-mindedness she until now has reserved for drinking. The two fall in love—a love affair as emotionally and erotically charged as any female-male relationship could ever be. But Erasmus has come to England with a purpose, and eventually the couple must face the world they have sought to flee. A fable for our time, The Woman and the Ape poses searching questions about the nature of love, freedom, and humanity

Giant Ape

Southeast Asia 17 The giant ape lived in Southeast Asia. Prehistoric cats,
elephants, and giant pandas lived there, too. So did prehistoric people called
Homo erectus. 17 The giant ape ate bamboo in Asia's forests for thousands. A
Map Of The ...

Author: Michael P. Goecke

Publisher: ABDO Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781617859717

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

View: 460


Introduces the characteristics, habitat, and behavior of the prehistoric giant ape.