A Very English Hangman

For him, hanging was a 'remote and skilled mystery, a sacred craft', but one that would be abolished in his lifetime. The story of his life is a fascinating insight into the changing face of Britain in the 20th century.

Author: Leonora Klein


ISBN: IND:30000087211490

Category: Executions and executioners

Page: 252

View: 938


Albert Pierrepoint was the man who hanged Ruth Ellis, Lord Haw Haw, Derek Bentley and the Belsen Nazi war criminals. For him, hanging was a 'remote and skilled mystery, a sacred craft', but one that would be abolished in his lifetime. The story of his life is a fascinating insight into the changing face of Britain in the 20th century.

Britain s Most Notorious Hangmen

... Villains and Eccentrics (Phoenix, London), 2002 Jack Doughty The Rochdale Hangman (Jade Publishing, Oldham, ... 1940 TJ Leech A Date with the Hangman (True Crime Library, London), 1998 Klein, Leonora A Very English Hangman: The life ...

Author: Stephen Wade

Publisher: Wharncliffe

ISBN: 9781844688401

Category: True Crime

Page: 176

View: 142


A breathtaking history of Britain’s executioners—from the seventeenth court of King Charles II to the UK’s last official hangman of the twentieth century. In 1663, Jack Ketch delighted in his profession and gained notoriety not only because of those he executed—dukes and lords—but for how often he botched the job. Centuries later, in 1965, after nearly six hundred trips to the gallows, Albert Pierrepoint retired as Britain’s longest-running executioner. Between them are three hundred years in a fascinating history of crime, and the “turn-off men” who handled the penalties—many of them criminals themselves, doing the grim work to save their own necks. Britain’s Most Notorious Hangmen tells the stories of the men who plied their deadly trade at Tyburn tree or at the scaffolds in the prison yards across the country, including such notable “neck-stretchers” as Throttler Smith and the celebrated James Billington. But true-crime historian Stephen Wade explores the lives and crimes of many of the infamous killers that were hanged, as well. He also sheds light on the changing social norms of the country, and the moral dilemmas that arose for hangmen tasked with performing what was once considered the most crowd-pleasing free “entertainment” ever offered to the public.

Yorkshire Hangmen

Leech, TJ, A Date with the Hangman (True Crime Library, London), 1998. Leonora, Klein, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (Corvo, London), 2006. Linebaugh, Peter, The London Hanged, (Verso, London), 2003.

Author: Stephen Wade

Publisher: Casemate Publishers

ISBN: 9781844688548

Category: True Crime

Page: 176

View: 173


From the eighteenth century, York was one of the places employing its own hangmen, copying London and Newgate, even to the use of the word Tyburn to define it's Knavesmire gallows, also known as the 'three-legged mare'. That was where highwayman Dick Turpin met his fate; but later, in the Victorian period, Armley Gaol in Leeds also became a hanging prison, the site of the death of the notorious killer Charlie Peace. The tales of the villains and the victims are well documented, but Stephen Wade also provides us with the stories of both Yorkshire-born hangmen and others who worked in Leeds, Hull or Wakefield. For the first time, Yorkshire's Hangmen brings together the tales of the lives and professional careers of these men, some famous, others long forgotten, who held a morbid fascination for the public. Their trade was mysterious, revolting and yet justified by many famous figures in history. The book includes accounts of killers, spies and traitors meeting their doom, but also tells something of the personalities of the hangmen, and of their moral dilemmas as they had to hang women and young people as well as hardened villains. Many of the executioners suffered terrible depression; some took their own lives, and others, such as the famous Albert Pierrepoint, even questioned their work in later life.

When the Hangman Came

The description of that day's hunt was extremely interesting and exciting, very quaint, and very English. When reading about this hunt, one almost gets the impression that it was taking place in some corner of the English countryside ...

Author: Joe L. Caruana Mbe

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781456778668

Category: Fiction

Page: 300

View: 575


Joe Caruana was born in Gibraltar on 13 November 1937. He attended Gibraltar Technical College. He worked as a draughtsman at the Air Ministry in Gibraltar and the UK and studied Engineering at the London Polytechnic. He became a specialist in industrial diamonds. Joe's public life started in 1966 when he became founding secretary of the Gibraltar Junior Chamber of Commerce. In 1967 he joined the executive of the Integration with Britain Party in Gibraltar. The IWBP won the 1969 general elections, and he served as Minister for Medical Services from 1969-70, and from 1970-72 as Minister for Public Works (also Housing). He served as a member of the Gibraltar Council and was chairman of several important committees including the Development and Planning Commission. With his family Joe went to Canada and stayed there for twelve years, starting a successful business in his old profession in the industrial diamond drilling industry. Around 1984 Joe volunteered to help at a home that helped teenage prostitutes and drug addicts called Exodus House, run by lay Franciscan brothers, an order he joined at the time.

Execution Culture in Nineteenth Century Britain

12 Stewart Evans, Executioner: The Chronicles of a Victorian Hangman, Stroud: The History Press, 2004. 13 Leonora Klein, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint, London: Corvo Books, 2006.

Author: Patrick Low

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000095814

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 233


This edited collection offers multi-disciplinary reflections and analysis on a variety of themes centred on nineteenth century executions in the UK, many specifically related to the fundamental change in capital punishment culture as the execution moved from the public arena to behind the prison wall. By examining a period of dramatic change in punishment practice, this collection of essays provides a fresh historical perspective on nineteenth century execution culture, with a focus on Scotland, Wales and the regions of England. From Public Spectacle to Hidden Ritual has two parts. Part 1 addresses the criminal body and the witnessing of executions in the nineteenth century, including studies of the execution crowd and executioners’ memoirs, as well as reflections on the experience of narratives around capital punishment in museums in the present day. Part 2 explores the treatment of the execution experience in the print media, from the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. The collection draws together contributions from the fields of Heritage and Museum Studies, History, Law, Legal History and Literary Studies, to shed new light on execution culture in nineteenth century Britain. This volume will be of interest to students and academics in the fields of criminology, heritage and museum studies, history, law, legal history, medical humanities and socio-legal studies.

The Hangman s Whip

If, owing to the dusk, she couldn't quite see the look in his eyes, she knew by his voice the look of pleasure and ... She was a new maid; her name, she said, was Carter; she was very English and very smart; she unpacked quickly and ...

Author: Mignon G. Eberhart

Publisher: Overamstel Uitgevers

ISBN: 9789049984458

Category: Fiction


View: 676


A Chicago socialite braves death to save her beloved from the gallows Search Abbott is high over Chicago when Howland proposes marriage, but her heart is far away. Since childhood she has loved Richard Bohan, and her passion has not dimmed in the three years since he made the mistake of marrying Eve. Howland has few kind words for Richard, but Search’s heart cannot be moved. She declines him, and leaves to visit her Aunt Ludmilla, a kindly old woman who claims she is being poisoned. She finds Richard staying at Ludmilla’s estate, and all her old feelings come rushing forth. His marriage is finished, he says, as he takes Search in his arms. But joy is fleeting—Eve will never let him go. Search’s hatred for her rival evaporates the moment she finds Eve dangling from a hangman’s noose. The woman was murdered, and the police are going to take Richard away.

A Fine Day for a Hanging

Klein, Leonora, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (London: Corvo, 2006), pp.154– 6. 10. HO 291/235. 11. Ibid. 12. Ibid. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 16. 31. Ibid. 32. Ibid. 33. Ibid. 34. CRIM 8/24. 35.

Author: Carol Ann Lee

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 9781780573694

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 405


In 1955, former nightclub manageress Ruth Ellis shot dead her lover, David Blakely. Following a trial that lasted less than two days, she was found guilty and sentenced to death. She became the last woman to be hanged in Britain, and her execution is the most notorious of hangman Albert Pierrepoint's 'duties'. Despite Ruth's infamy, the story of her life has never been fully told. Often wilfully misinterpreted, the reality behind the headlines was buried by an avalanche of hearsay. But now, through new interviews and comprehensive research into previously unpublished sources, Carol Ann Lee examines the facts without agenda or sensation. A portrait of the era and an evocation of 1950s club life in all its seedy glamour, A Fine Day for a Hanging sets Ruth's gripping story firmly in its historical context in order to tell the truth about both her timeless crime and a punishment that was very much of its time.

The Hangman s Companion

Very English,” he said, “you hardly need any subtitles at all.” He'd tell Carolyn the truth afterward, when spilling the beans wouldn't matter. “Is that Dad?” a voice piped up. Caitie. “We have a princess here, too,” his ex told him.

Author: Joseph Flynn

Publisher: Stray Dog Press Inc

ISBN: 9780976417095

Category: Fiction


View: 784


Jim McGill, the first private eye to live in the White House, calls himself The President's Henchman. As the husband of President Patricia Darden Grant, he can call himself pretty much what he wants.But with privilege comes obligation. When Patti travels to a G-8 meeting in England, McGill is fitted for evening wear and drafted to be Patti's escort at a gilded dinner. He's okay with that. But while Patti is busy reshaping the world, McGill fears his time will be occupied cutting ribbons.Then Glen Kinnard's daughter, Emilie, asks for help. McGill knows Kinnard from their days as Chicago cops. They were never friends and once almost came to blows. But McGill is a soft touch for a young woman looking out for her dad, and, oh, does Kinnard need help.Taking the ashes of his late wife to her native Paris, Kinnard got into a fight with the star player of the French national soccer team. The brawl under the Pont d'Iena, the bridge at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, left Kinnard unconscious and the Frenchman dead. Kinnard swears he was only trying to protect a woman the Frenchman was beating. But the woman has disappeared.The French allow McGill to investigate, provided he accepts Gabriella Casale, a State Department Security Officer as his bodyguard, that he works with the investigating magistrate assigned to the case, and that he wraps things up in a week.In Paris, McGill encounters gypsy con artists, British soccer hooligans and a monstrous brute known as The Undertaker. And he tries to ignore rumors reaching him that the president of France was Patti's old college boyfriend, and things back in England are heating up once again.Time is short and there's a lot to do because at the end of the week McGill still has to don his white tie and tails for dinner with Patti and the Queen at Buckingham Palace.

The International Library of Essays on Capital Punishment Volume 3

Klein, L. (2006), A Very English Hangman, Corvo Books, London. Lilly, J. and Thomson, J. (1997), 'Executing US Soldiers in Engalnd, World War II', British Journal of Criminology, 37(2), 262–288. McLaughlin, S. (2008), Harry Allen: ...

Author: Peter Hodgkinson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351887472

Category: Social Science

Page: 680

View: 421


This volume provides analyses of a range of subjects and issues in the death penalty debate, from medicine to the media. The essays address in particular the personal complexities of those involved, a fundamental part of the subject usually overridden by the theoretical and legal aspects of the debate. The unique personal vantage offered by this volume makes it essential reading for anyone interested in going beyond the removed theoretical understanding of the death penalty, to better comprehending its fundamental humanity. Additionally, the international range of the analysis, enabling disaggregation of country specific motivations, ensures the complexities of the death penalty are also considered from a global perspective.

The Politics of the Rope

The Story of Britain's Infamous Hangmen (London: John Blake, 2006) Fisher, Nigel, Iain Macleod (London: Andre Deutsch, ... 1964) Klein, Leonora, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (London: Corvo, ...

Author: Neville Twitchell

Publisher: Arena books

ISBN: 9781906791988

Category: Law

Page: 400

View: 751


This illuminating broad-based political and cultural study presents the definitive account of the campaign to abolish capital punishment in the period 1955-69. It comprises a work of contemporary history exploring the theme from a number of angles, both pro and contra, which have not been covered so extensively before. From the sphere of governmental and parliamentary politics, to the relevant pressure groups, to the role of the mass media, to the significance of the different churches, and the influence of professional bodies, such as those representing the police and prison officers, the book skilfully identifies their interaction with one another. It examines the effect on the campaign of fluctuations in public opinion, and of controversial murder cases such as those of Timothy Evans, Derek Bentley, Ruth Ellis and James Hanratty, which in turn often informed the state of public opinion The work sets the campaign in the context of the social and cultural ferment of the era (the advent of the permissive society), and contrasts the fortunes of the movement with those of other "conscience issues," such as the legalisation of abortion, homosexual law reform, divorce liberalisation and the abolition of theatre censorship. It seeks to account for the success of the campaign within a relatively short time span in the face of intense public antipathy and a concerted effort by various elements of the establishment to thwart its fulfilment. It asks why the campaign succeeded when so many others facing lesser institutional obstacles failed, and it asks why it succeeded when it did and in the way it did, and considers whether the success of the campaign can be accounted for by the Zeitgeist. On one level it is a study of the politics of social reform, but at a deeper level it is a study of the way in which social trends feed through into political action at the parliamentary level, and illustrates the process of policy formation in the area of private members legislation and free votes where "party" has voluntarily taken a back seat.

Murder at Wrotham Hill

For Albert Pierrepoint, Britain's chief hangman, I used his autobiography Executioner Pierrepoint; Leonora Klein, A Very English Hangman; Steve Fielding, Pierrepoint: A Family of Executioners; the Reportby the Royal Commission on ...

Author: Diana Souhami

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780857384225

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 883


Murder at Wrotham Hill takes the killing in October 1946 of Dagmar Petrzywalski as the catalyst for a compelling and unique meditation on murder and fate. Dagmar, a gentle, eccentric spinster, was the embodiment of Austerity Britain's prudence and thrift. Her murderer Harold Hagger's litany of petty crimes, abandoned wives, sloughed-off identities and desertion was its opposite. The texture of their lives and the impression their experiences made on their characters fated their meeting on that bleak autumn morning - and determined the manner in which both would meet their death. Featuring England's first celebrity policeman, Fabian of the Yard, the celebrated forensic scientist, Keith Simpson, and history's most famous and dedicated hangman, Albert Pierrepoint, this is a gripping and deeply moving book.

Foul Deeds and Suspicious Deaths In Around The Fens

... 2003 Humphreys, Sir Travers A Book of Trials, Heinemann, London, 1953 Klein, Leonora A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint, Corvo, London, 2006 Lane, Brian The Encyclopaedia of Forensic Science, Headline, ...

Author: Glenda Goulden

Publisher: Wharncliffe

ISBN: 9781783408672

Category: True Crime

Page: 160

View: 110


Discover this coastal plain in England—and the crimes that have taken place there over the centuries. The Fens of England, thinly populated with isolated farmsteads, has been the setting for a number of popular crime novels—but it has also been the actual site of many horrific, bloody, and bizarre incidents. This book takes a gripping look at the darker side of the area’s history—from crimes of callous premeditation to those born of passion or despair. Included are tales of conspiracy, robbery, violence, cruelty, and murder that reveal a previously neglected side of Fenland society. Unforgettable cases are featured—a mother who murdered her son, a police officer who hid the body of his mother, a farmer brutally slain for his money, a dustman who killed a local girl, and the headless body of a woman who has never been identified. Covering a wide range of human weakness and wickedness, this chronicle of the hidden side of the Fens will be compelling reading for anyone who is interested in the sinister side of human nature and the social conditions that nurture it.

Fighting for the United States Executed in Britain

Klein, Leonora (2006), A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint, London, Corvo Books. Moore, William (1974), The Thin Yellow Line, London, Leo Cooper. O'Brien, John Paul Jones (2019), A Treatise on American ...

Author: Simon Webb

Publisher: Pen and Sword Military

ISBN: 9781526790965

Category: History

Page: 184

View: 483


This book relates a chapter of American military history which many people would rather forget. When the United States came to the aid of Britain in 1942, the arrival of American troops was greeted with unreserved enthusiasm, but unfortunately, wartime sometimes brings out the worst, as well as the best, in people. A small number of the soldiers abused the hospitality they received by committing murders and rapes against British civilians. Some of these men were hanged or shot at Shepton Mallet Prison in Somerset, which had been handed over for the use of the American armed forces. Due to a treaty between Britain and America, those accused of such offences faced an American court martial, rather than a British civilian court, which gave rise to some curious anomalies. Although rape had not been a capital crime in Britain for over a century, it still carried the death penalty under American military law and so the last executions for rape in Britain were carried out at this time in Shepton Mallet. Fighting For the United States, Executed in Britain tells the story of every American soldier executed in Britain during the Second World War. The majority of the executed soldiers were either black or Hispanic, reflecting the situation in the United States itself, where the ethnicity of the accused person often played a key role in both convictions and the chances of subsequently being executed.

Searching for Lord Haw Haw

L. Klein, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (London, 2006), provides an account of his activities. 3 National Galleries of Justice, Nottingham, AAPSM 2000 0008C E 02207 for a list of Pierrepoint's ...

Author: Colin Holmes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317408345

Category: Political Science

Page: 494

View: 287


Searching for Lord Haw-Haw is an authoritative account of the political lives of William Joyce. He became notorious as a fascist, an anti-Semite and then as a Second World War traitor when, assuming the persona of Lord Haw-Haw, he acted as a radio propagandist for the Nazis. It is an endlessly compelling story of simmering hope, intense frustration, renewed anticipation and ultimately catastrophic failure. This fully-referenced work is the first attempt to place Joyce at the centre of the turbulent, traumatic and influential events through which he lived. It challenges existing biographies, which have reflected not only Joyce’s frequent calculated deceptions but also the suspect claims advanced by his family, friends and apologists. By exploring his rampant, increasingly influential narcissism it also offers a pioneering analysis of Joyce’s personality and exposes its dangerous, destructive consequences. "What a saga my life would make!" Joyce wrote from prison just before his execution. Few would disagree with him.

The Silver Wind

Originally inspired by the image of Johann Conrad Wolf's extraordinary watch in the form of a skull, made in Germany in 1660, combined with a reading of Leonora Klein's 2006 study of Albert Pierrepoint, A Very English Hangman, ...

Author: Nina Allan

Publisher: Titan Books

ISBN: 9781789091700

Category: Fiction

Page: 368

View: 792


Named as one of ‘50 Writers You Should Read Now’ by The Guardian. From the award-winning author of The Rift, Nina Allan, The Silver Wind is a remarkable narrative exploring the nature of time itself. A powerful tale of time travel, time lost, time regained and time disrupted. In this remarkable narrative, watches and clocks become time machines, vehicles to explore alternate realities, the unreliability of memory and roads not taken. Martin and Dora Newland – sometimes siblings, sometimes lovers and sometimes friends, both subject to the tricks and turns of time and fate. Owen Andrews – watchmaker, time traveller, government agent. Their stories interlock and interweave like the perfectly honed cogs of a watch mechanism to reveal an unsettling world of missed opportunities, broken connections and personal losses. Award-winning author of The Rift and The Dollmaker, Nina Allan once again demonstrates that she is a storyteller at the height of her powers.


... 1987) Kaledin, Eugenia, Mothers and More: American Women in the 1950s (Woodbridge: Twayne Publishers, 1984) Khein, Leonara, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (London: Corvo Books, 2006) Koper, Richard, ...

Author: Shar Daws

Publisher: The History Press

ISBN: 9780750994583

Category: Biography & Autobiography


View: 517


Jean Harlow, the Godmother of Blondes, lit the torch for the blonde bombshell, creating an image and persona that would be passed on for generations to come. Jean’s life was cut tragically short at the age of 26, but the flame reignited in the 1950s with the most notorious blondes of all time: Ruth Ellis, Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield and Diana Dors. Each left a legacy that has ensured the fire will never be completely extinguished, affecting not only individual lives but society across a world stage. From Marilyn’s stardom and Diana’s unwavering integrity, to Ruth’s tragic status as the last woman hanged in Britain, all of these women experienced success and tragedy, love and heartbreak, and attention both positive and negative. Bombshells examines these five exceptional women in the context of the 1950s, the expectations and constrictions society had at the time and how they pushed through barriers and paved the way for the real sexual revolution.

Beautiful Idiots and Brilliant Lunatics

... 2008) Klein, Leonora, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (London: Corvo Books, 2006) Kynaston, David, Austerity Britain 1945–51 (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2007) Levy, Shawn, Ready, Steady, Go!

Author: Rob Baker

Publisher: Amberley Publishing Limited

ISBN: 9781445651200

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 116


London's forgotten scandals, secrets and personalities from the twentieth century, told by the writer of the popular blog Another Nickel in the Machine.

Fascinating Footnotes From History

... 1995) Pearlman, Moshe, The Capture of Adolf Eichmann (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1961) The Celebrity Executioner Klein, Leonora, A Very English Hangman: The Life and Times of Albert Pierrepoint (Corvo Books, 2006) Pierrepoint, Albert, ...

Author: Giles Milton

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9781473609068

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 177


'Giles Milton is a man who can take an event from history and make it come alive . . . an inspiration for those of us who believe that history can be exciting and entertaining' Matthew Redhead, The Times Did you know that Hitler took cocaine? That Stalin robbed a bank? That Charlie Chaplin's corpse was filched and held to ransom? Giles Milton is a master of historical narrative: in his characteristically engaging prose, Fascinating Footnotes From History details one hundred of the quirkiest historical nuggets; eye-stretching stories that read like fiction but are one hundred per cent fact. There is Hiroo Onoda, the lone Japanese soldier still fighting the Second World War in 1974; Agatha Christie, who mysteriously disappeared for eleven days in 1926; and Werner Franz, a cabin boy on the Hindenburg who lived to tell the tale when it was engulfed in flames in 1937. Fascinating Footnotes From History also answers who ate the last dodo, who really killed Rasputin and why Sergeant Stubby had four legs. Peopled with a gallery of spies, rogues, cannibals, adventurers and slaves, and spanning twenty centuries and six continents, Giles Milton's impeccably researched footnotes shed light on some of the most infamous stories and most flamboyant and colourful characters (and animals) from history. (Previoulsy published in four individual epub volumes: When Hitler Took Cocaine, When Stalin Robbed a Bank, When Lenin Lost His Brain and When Churchill Slaughtered Sheep.)

A Very English Agent

and then to the hangman, “Let go the jibboom!” and down went the trap and choked off his own cheer. 'I told you he was a little man, dinn' I? So he had not the weight to break his neck and the whole crowd stayed quiet as mice as for two ...

Author: Julian Rathbone

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780748108862

Category: Fiction

Page: 448

View: 195


Dwarfish Charlie Boylan carries a loaded pistol into the House of Commons. A can of worms waiting to be opened, he was a police spy for nearly forty years. He wants a pension and what he knows will get it! Did he, between Waterloo and Wellington's funeral, cause the Peterloo riot to happen? Was it Charlie who fingered the Cato Street Conspirators? Did Shelley really drown by accident? And at the opening of the Great Exhibition was it he who saved the Queen from being blown up? With dark undertones in its revelations of the orchestrated state repression that followed the Napoleonic Wars, A Very English Agent drives a horse, well, a donkey and cart, through the early years of the nineteenth century in a rumbustious, funny, sexy, teeming novel, worthy of the times it describes.

Postmodernism in the Cinema

The only game that engages anything like a community is the beach game of Hangman's Cricket, a corruption and embellishment of the very English children's game of French Cricket, in and of itself is a piece of adult chauvinism intended ...

Author: Cristina Degli-Esposti

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781789203837

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 276

View: 487


Although "Postmodernism" has been a widely used catch word and its concept extensively discussed in philosophy, political thought, and the arts, many scholars still feel uneasy about it Despite the fact that the concept can be traced back to Arnold Toynbee's 1939 edition of A Study of History, or even back into the nineteenth century, its amorphous nature continues to confound many scholars, not least because there are not one but several kinds of postmodernism, each one pointing to different states of questioning and to diverse ways of remembering, interpreting, and representing. This anthology makes a significant contribution to the current debate in that it offers sophisticated and multi-faceted discussions of a number of key issues in relation to cinema such as auteurism, national cinemas, metacinema, the parodic, history, and colonization.